END NOTES FOR INSANE MODE
Chapter 1: Get Your Motor Runnin’
“I’m trying to allocate my efforts to that which I think would most affect the future of humanity in a positive way” “PandoMonthly: Fireside Chat with Elon Musk.” PandoDaily YouTube Channel, July 17, 2012. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uegOUmgKB4E.
announced plans for a “fifth mode of transport” “Hyperloop” by Elon Musk. Tesla Motors Blog, August 12, 2013. https://www.tesla.com/blog/hyperloop.
He wrote the blueprint for his so‑called Hyperloop “Elon Musk Details 800-mph Hyperloop Transportation System.” Fox News, August 12, 2013. http://www.foxnews.com/science/2013/08/12/elon-musk-details-800-mph-hyperloop-transport.html; “Hyperloop Revealed: Elon Musk Foresees Rapid Transit in a Tube.” NBC News, August 12, 2013. http://www.nbcnews.com/business/hyperloop-revealed-elon-musk-foresees-rapid-transit-tube-6C10902051; “Elon Musk Unveils San Francisco–LA ‘Hyperloop’ Idea.” BBC News, August 12, 2013. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-23677205.
Peel off the lid and you’ll see the batteries “Rare Look Inside A Tesla Model S Battery Pack.” InsideEVs, September 23, 2014. http://insideevs.com/look-inside-a-tesla-model-s-battery-pac/.
Chapter 2: A Rush of Electrons to the Head
Motor Trend’s Car of the Year “2013 Motor Trend Card of the Year: Tesla Model S.” Motor Trend, November 12, 2012. http://www.motortrend.com/news/2013-motor-trend-car-of-the-year-tesla-model-s/.
4,647-pound aluminum steed “Model S Specifications.” Tesla Motors website. Accessed October 27, 2016. https://www.tesla.com/support/model-s-specifications.
why electric cars just aren’t right for this world “Electric Cars Are an Extraordinarily Bad Idea.” Forbes.com, September 14, 2011. http://www.forbes.com/sites/louiswoodhill/2011/09/14/electric-cars-are-an-extraordinarily-bad-idea/#7ba197c86466; “8 Reasons Why the Electric Car Will Not Be a Success Anytime Soon.” Business Insider, December 9, 2011. http://www.businessinsider.com/the-electric-car-why-it-is-not-ready-for-mass-consumption-2011-12?op=1; “Why Electric Cars Don’t Have a Future.” OilPrice.com, September 14, 2012. http://oilprice.com/Alternative-Energy/Fuel-Cells/Why-Electric-Cars-Dont-have-a-Future.html.
no private company had ever returned a spacecraft from low-earth orbit “A Space-Age First: A Commercial Craft Returns From Low-Earth Orbit.” CNN.com, December 8, 2010. http://www.cnn.com/2010/US/12/08/space.flight/.
‘I think I can do it’ “Entrepreneur of the Year, 2007: Elon Musk.” Inc., December 1, 2007. http://www.inc.com/magazine/20071201/entrepreneur-of-the-year-elon-musk.html.
Kids nicknamed him “Muskrat” “Plugged In.” New Yorker, August 24, 2009. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2009/08/24/plugged-in.
“always felt a duty to save the world.” Ibid.
Errol was an electrical and mechanical engineer “2014: Rocket Man: The Otherworldly Ambitions of Elon Musk.” The Mercury News, April 10, 2014. http://www.mercurynews.com/business/ci_25541126/rocket-man-otherworldy-ambitions-elon-musk.
Maye, was born in Canada Ibid.
Maye later characterized it as her running away “The Believer.” GQ, December 31, 2008. http://www.gq.com/story/elon-musk-paypal-solar-power-electric-cars-space-travel.
Tosca, called the father “very strict” “Elon Musk: Triumph of His Will.” Esquire, November 14, 2012. http://www.gq.com/story/elon-musk-paypal-solar-power-electric-cars-space-travel.
seemed like the right thing to do “Plugged In.” New Yorker, August 24, 2009. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2009/08/24/plugged-in.
Errol described himself as “an autocratic father” “2014: Rocket Man: The Otherworldly Ambitions of Elon Musk.” The Mercury News, April 10, 2014. http://www.mercurynews.com/business/ci_25541126/rocket-man-otherworldy-ambitions-elon-musk.
“toys that will amount to nothing” “The Believer.” GQ, December 31, 2008. http://www.gq.com/story/elon-musk-paypal-solar-power-electric-cars-space-travel.
sold it to a computer magazine for $500 “Play the PC Game Elon Musk Wrote As a Pre-Teen.” The Verge, June 9, 2015. http://www.theverge.com/2015/6/9/8752333/elon-musk-blastar-pc-game.
“destroy alien freighter…” “Blastar for HTML5.” Accessed 11.34am, October 27, 2016. https://blastar-1984.appspot.com/.
open a video arcade “Entrepreneur of the Year, 2007: Elon Musk.” Inc., December 1, 2007. http://www.inc.com/magazine/20071201/entrepreneur-of-the-year-elon-musk.html.
selling homemade chocolates Ibid.
beaten so badly that his father didn’t recognize him “Errol Musk: ‘Elon Was Beaten So Badly, I Couldn’t Recognise Him.” BizNews.com, July 22, 2015. http://www.biznews.com/undictated/2015/07/22/errol-musk-elon-was-beaten-so-badly-i-couldnt-recognise-him/.
“Kids gave Elon a very hard time…” “Elon Musk: Triumph of His Will.” Esquire, November 14, 2012. http://www.gq.com/story/elon-musk-paypal-solar-power-electric-cars-space-travel.
“Suppressing black people…” “The Rocketeer.” Foreign Policy, December 9, 2013. http://foreignpolicy.com/2013/12/09/the-rocketeer/.
“The US is where great things are possible” “Entrepreneur of the Year, 2007: Elon Musk.” Inc., December 1, 2007. http://www.inc.com/magazine/20071201/entrepreneur-of-the-year-elon-musk.html.
Elon and Kimbal had applied for Canadian passports Ibid.
crashing at the homes of various relatives “Plugged In.” New Yorker, August 24, 2009. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2009/08/24/plugged-in.
enrolled at Queen’s University “Entrepreneur of the Year, 2007: Elon Musk.” Inc., December 1, 2007. http://www.inc.com/magazine/20071201/entrepreneur-of-the-year-elon-musk.html.
His mother and siblings soon followed him to Canada “Elon Musk: Triumph of His Will.” Esquire, November 14, 2012. http://www.gq.com/story/elon-musk-paypal-solar-power-electric-cars-space-travel.
“intellectual with sort of an edge” Ashlee Vance, Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future (New York: Ecco, 2015), 48.
two continued a long-distance relationship Ibid., 51.
Musk wrote two papers Ibid., 53-54.
“Do you think about electric cars?” Ibid., 47.
“About time to unveil the D…” Elon Musk’s Twitter account, 6:31 p.m., October 1, 2014, https://.com/elonmusk/status/517486950589014016?lang=en.
“Yes, you’ll notice my pants have Velcro seams” “Tesla Unveils Dual Motor and Autopilot.” Tesla Motors YouTube account, October 10, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FZ6lZJWL_Xk.
“It will actually say ‘Insane’.” “Tesla Unveils Dual Motor and Autopilot.” Tesla Motors YouTube account, October 10, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FZ6lZJWL_Xk.
Videos posted by people who had experienced “Insane Mode” during test rides at the event appeared on YouTube the next day “Crazy Reaction to Tesla Model S P85D First Test Drive With 0-60 3.2 Seconds.” Michael Gardner’s YouTube Channel, October 9, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WbVEkh4AMqM.
littered with expletives “Tesla P85D Insane Mode Launch Reactions Compilation (Explicit Version).” DragTimes YouTube Channel, January 25, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LpaLgF1uLB8; “Tesla P85D Insane Mode Launch Reactions Compilation (Clean Version).” DragTimes YouTube Channel, January 25, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1qFV5i8tBhs.
intending to study at Stanford University toward a physics PhD Ibid. “Entrepreneur of the Year, 2007: Elon Musk.” Inc., December 1, 2007. http://www.inc.com/magazine/20071201/entrepreneur-of-the-year-elon-musk.html.
started his own internet company, Zip2 Ibid.
Kimbal and a friend joined him later Ibid.
rented a dingy office Ibid.
showers at the local YMCA “How Elon Musk Went From Showering at the YMCA to Building a Mars Colony.” ABC News, November 12, 2013. http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/business/2013/11/how-elon-musk-went-from-showering-at-the-ymca-to-building-a-mars-colony/.
he earned $22 million from the eventual sale of the company “The Incredible Story of Elon Musk, From Getting Bullied in School to the Most Interesting Man in Tech.” Business Insider, August 1, 2016. http://www.businessinsider.com/the-rise-of-elon-musk-2016-7/#musk-and-his-brother-kimbal-pictured-took-28000-of-their-fathers-money-started-zip2-a-web-startup-that-provided-city-travel-guides-to-newspapers-like-the-new-york-times-and-chicago-tribune-11.
Compaq for $307 million “Compaq Buys Zip2 to Enhance Altavista.” New York Times, February 17, 1999. http://www.nytimes.com/1999/02/17/business/compaq-buys-zip2-to-enhance-altavista.html?_r=0.
“But the car sure is, sure is fun” “Young Elon Musk Featured in Documentary About Millionaires (1999).” Every Elon Musk Video YouTube channel, October 5, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kSHUha9ABNY.
he co-founded X.com “Former Intuit CEO Joins Web Startup.” ZDNet, December 7, 1999. http://www.zdnet.com/article/former-intuit-ceo-joins-web-startup/.
invested $12 million of his own money in it Ashlee Vance, Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future (New York: Ecco, 2015), 80.
become the market leader for email-based payments “Why Did PayPal Merge with X.Com?” Quora, July 2, 2010. https://www.quora.com/Why-did-PayPal-merge-with-X.com/answer/David-O-Sacks?srid=AQI.
The resulting company was PayPal “How the ‘PayPal Mafia’ Redefined Success in Silicon Valley.” Tech Republic, October 27, 2016. http://www.techrepublic.com/article/how-the-paypal-mafia-redefined-success-in-silicon-valley/.
Peter Thiel and Max Levchin, staged a coup “The PayPal Mafia.” Fortune, November 13, 2007. http://fortune.com/2007/11/13/paypal-mafia/.
“He’s one of those guys who can be larger than the room” “Entrepreneur of the Year, 2007: Elon Musk.” Inc., December 1, 2007. http://www.inc.com/magazine/20071201/entrepreneur-of-the-year-elon-musk.html.
earned a payout of $180 million “Elon Musk and the Terrible, Horrible, No Good $779 Million Day.” Bloomberg, September 1, 2016. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-09-01/elon-musk-and-the-terrible-horrible-no-good-779-million-day.
Chapter 3: The Fight for the Electric Car
Musk had interviewed at least twenty candidates “Entrepreneur of the Year, 2007: Elon Musk.” Inc., December 1, 2007. http://www.inc.com/magazine/20071201/entrepreneur-of-the-year-elon-musk.html.
Musk took over in October 2008 “Tesla Motors Announces Layoffs; Musk to Assume CEO Position.” The Mercury News, October 15, 2008. http://www.mercurynews.com/2008/10/15/tesla-motors-announces-layoffs-musk-to-assume-ceo-post/.
simply, “CEO” On March 28, 2014, Tesla published a blog post under the byline “Elon Musk, Chairman, Product Architect & CEO.” The next byline under Musk’s name was accompanied by just “CEO.” “Tesla Adds Titanium Underbody Shield and Aluminum Deflector Plates to Model S.” Tesla Motors Blog, March 28, 2014. https://www.tesla.com/blog/tesla-adds-titanium-underbody-shield-and-aluminum-deflector-plates-model-s; “All Our Patent Are Belong to You.” Tesla Motors Blog, June 12, 2014. https://www.tesla.com/blog/all-our-patent-are-belong-you.
experiencing marital difficulties Ashlee Vance, Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future (New York: Ecco, 2015), 189.
started a relationship with the young British actress Talulah Riley Ibid., 193–194.
Musk quickly proposed marriage Ibid., 195–196.
They married in 2010 “Elon Musk’s British Wife Talulah Riley Files to Divorce the Billionaire – 15 months After the Pair’s Previous Split.” Daily Mail, March 21, 2016. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3503228/Elon-Musks-wife-files-divorce-billionaire.html.
admiring profile in GQ “The Believer.” GQ, December 31, 2008. http://www.gq.com/story/elon-musk-paypal-solar-power-electric-cars-space-travel.
guest slot on the Late Show with David Letterman “Elon Musk Tries to Keep His Serious,” Sival Teokal’s YouTube channel, June 20, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bF2-11LRHe8.
New Yorker profile “Plugged In.” New Yorker, August 24, 2009. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2009/08/24/plugged-in.
Wired (2010) “How Elon Musk Turned Tesla Into the Car Company of the Future.” Wired, September 27, 2010. https://www.wired.com/2010/09/ff_tesla/.
Forbes (2012) “At Home With Elon Musk: The (Soon-To-Be) Bachelor Billionaire.” Forbes, March 26, 2012. http://www.forbes.com/sites/hannahelliott/2012/03/26/at-home-with-elon-musk-the-soon-to-be-bachelor-billionaire/#581edab54ead.
Esquire (2012) “Elon Musk: Triumph of His Will.” Esquire, November 14, 2012. http://www.gq.com/story/elon-musk-paypal-solar-power-electric-cars-space-travel.
Fortune (2013) “2013’s Top People in Business.” Fortune, November 21, 2013. http://fortune.com/2013/11/21/2013s-top-people-in-business/.
Revenge of the Electric Car Revenge of the Electric Car. Directed by Chris Paine, Los Angeles: Papercut Films, 2011.
“He always wants bigger, better, faster.” “Elon Musk: The World’s Raddest Man.” Wait But Why, May 7, 2015. http://waitbutwhy.com/2015/05/elon-musk-the-worlds-raddest-man.html.
“an interesting mix of extremely challenging and incredibly difficult” “Tesla CTO JB Straubel Talks Tesla Energy and Working With Elon Musk.” Electrek, May 10, 2016. https://electrek.co/2016/05/10/tesla-cto-jb-straubel-energy-elon-musk-video/.
“If you’re going through hell…” “Elon Musk Loves This Winston Churchill Quote About ‘Going Through Hell’.” Business Insider, January 6, 2015. http://www.businessinsider.com/elon-musk-on-winston-churchill-hell-quote-2015-1.
“… keep going” “Elon Musk Talks About Getting the Job Done.” Mahalo YouTube Channel, September 23, 2011. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MOPgM7Sc2VQ.
“Electricity is the thing” “Henry Ford and the Electric Car.” Hemmings Daily, May 25, 2010. https://blog.hemmings.com/index.php/2010/05/25/henry-ford-and-the-electric-car/.
In 1901, he claimed he had developed an electric car Randall Stross, The Wizard of Menlo Park (New York: Crown, 2007), Kindle edition, Location 3553.
The following year, he said the prototype could drive eighty-five miles Ibid. And Electric Railway Journal, Vol. 35, McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, April 16, 1910, p. 707. Digital version available via Google Books, http://bit.ly/2ffkXYI.
“It will be but a short time before demand for storage batteries will create one of the most enormous industries in the land” Randall Stross, The Wizard of Menlo Park (New York: Crown, 2007), Kindle edition, Location 3553.
“Within a year, I hope, we shall begin the manufacture of an electric automobile” “Henry Ford and the Electric Car.” Hemmings Daily, May 25, 2010. https://blog.hemmings.com/index.php/2010/05/25/henry-ford-and-the-electric-car/.
photo from 1913 Ibid.
photo from 1914 Ibid.
Rumor had it that the car, due to hit the road by 1916 Ibid.
At the dawn of the automotive era, it wasn’t clear that gasoline- powered cars “The History of the Electric Car.” Energy.gov, September 15, 2014. http://energy.gov/articles/history-electric-car.
Steam- powered cars, which had been around since the 1700s Ibid.
they could take up to forty- five minutes to start Ibid.
The first internal combustion engine cars were designed in the early 1800s Ibid.
Robert Anderson, who came up with the first electric carriages in the 1830 Ibid.
thanks to another Scot, a chemist named William Morrison … “William Morrison.” The Des Moines Register, October 28, 2016. http://data.desmoinesregister.com/famous-iowans/william-morrison.
Pope Manufacturing Company… “Timeline: History of the Electric Car.” PBS.org, October 30, 2009. http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/223/electric-car-timeline.html.
Ferdinand Porsche… “The First Porsche in the World – the Return of the ‘P1’.” Porsche press release, October 28, 2016. http://press.porsche.com/news/release.php?id=842.
Edison couldn’t get his batteries to pass the testing phase “Henry Ford and the Electric Car.” Hemmings Daily, May 25, 2010. https://blog.hemmings.com/index.php/2010/05/25/henry-ford-and-the-electric-car/.
plans to buy a hundred thousand batteries “Henry Ford and the Electric Car.” Hemmings Daily, May 25, 2010. https://blog.hemmings.com/index.php/2010/05/25/henry-ford-and-the-electric-car/.
Edison failed to make his batteries work “Thomas Edison.” History.com, 2009. http://www.history.com/topics/inventions/thomas-edison.
Ford turned his full attention to mass manufacturing the gasoline burners “The History of the Electric Car.” Energy.gov, September 15, 2014. http://energy.gov/articles/history-electric-car.
Texas oil fields, discovered in the early 1900s Ibid.
made electric cars essentially obsolete by the 1930s Ibid.
California Air Resources Board (CARB) established a rule “Zero-Emission Vehicle Legal and Regulatory Activities – Background.” California Environmental Protection Agency, October 14, 2011. https://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/zevprog/background.htm.
all-electric concept car called the Impact Who Killed the Electric Car? Directed by Chris Paine. Los Angeles: Papercut Films, 2006.
In 1996, GM started leasing a production version Ibid.
Tom Hanks and Mel Gibson “Rare Surviving GM EV1 Waits for Savior at Missouri University.” Green Car Reports, August 9, 2013.
Just 1,117 EV1s were ever made Ibid.
1999, citing lack of public demand and high production costs Ibid.
sent all but a few cars to the demolition yard Ibid.
Who Killed the Electric Car? Ibid.
GM was selling nearly four thousand Hummers a month “Hummer vs Prius.” Slate, February 26, 2004. http://www.slate.com/articles/business/moneybox/2004/02/hummer_vs_prius.single.html.
Bush administration pushed CARB to abandon its electric car mandate “White House Joins Fight Against Electric Cars.” New York Times, October 10, 2002. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/10/us/white-house-joins-fight-against-electric-cars.html?_r=0; Keeth, Deborah. “The California Climate Law: A State’s Cutting-Edge Efforts to Achieve Clean Air.” Ecology Law Quarterly, Vol 30, Issue 30, June 2003. http://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1721&context=elq.
Scott McLellan denied Ibid.
CARB relaxed its emissions standards “California’s Auto Emissions Laws.” Air Wars, PBS.org, April 15, 2005. http://www.pbs.org/now/science/caautoemissions2.html.
disseminated technical and economic arguments against electric cars “Trying to Pull the Plug: Big Oil Companies Sponsor Efforts to Curtail Electric, Natural Gas Cars.” Los Angeles Times, April 14, 1994. http://articles.latimes.com/1994-04-14/business/fi-46003_1_natural-gas-cars.
The saga, he said, served as inspiration for his investment in Tesla “Computer History Museum Presents: An Evening With Elon Musk.” Fresh Dialogues, January 24, 2013. http://www.freshdialogues.com/2013/01/23/elon-musk-on-spacex-ipo-environment-flying-cars/.
“I think there is a strong humanitarian argument…” “Exodus.” Aeon, September 30, 2015. https://aeon.co/essays/elon-musk-puts-his-case-for-a-multi-planet-civilisation.
Tesla sued the Danish designer “Tesla Motors Files Suit Against Competitor Over Design Ideas.” New York Times, April 15, 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/15/technology/15tesla.html.
An arbitrator found in Fisker’s favor “Tesla vs Fisker: The Epilogue (Or, Why Tesla Owes Fisker $1.1 Million).” MotorTrend, December 4, 2008. http://www.motortrend.com/news/tesla-vs-fisker-the-epilogue-or-why-tesla-owes-fisker-11-million-3052/.
“I don’t think very highly of Henrik Fisker” “Q and A: Elon Musk, CEO, Tesla.” Automobile, August 16, 2012. http://www.automobilemag.com/news/q-and-a-elon-musk-ceo-tesla/.
Musk responded by calling Eberhard a liar “Tesla CEO Musk Strikes Back: Eberhard’s Lawsuit is Bull.” Business Insider, June 22, 2009. http://www.businessinsider.com/musk-strikes-back-eberhard-full-of-it-2009-6.
The parties settled the suit out of court “Tesla Founders End Bitter Legal Fight.” Los Angeles Times, September 22, 2009. http://articles.latimes.com/2009/sep/22/business/fi-tesla22.
“about as authentic as a Milli Vanilli concert” “Elon Musk Calls Top Gear ‘Completely Phony’.” Wired, April 5, 2011. https://www.wired.com/2011/04/elon-musk-calls-top-gear-completely-phony/.
Tesla sued Top Gear for libel “Top Gear Did Not Libel Carmaker Tesla, High Court Rules.” The Guardian, October 19, 2011. https://www.theguardian.com/media/2011/oct/19/top-gear-not-libel-tesla?INTCMP=SRCH.
After losing in court twice “Judge Tosses Tesla’s Case Against Top Gear.” Wired, February 23, 2012. https://www.wired.com/2012/02/tesla-vs-top-gear/.
A judge dismissed that too “Tesla Libel Suit Over BBC’s ‘Top Gear’ Dismissed in U.K.” Bloomberg, March 5, 2013. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2013-03-05/tesla-libel-suit-over-bbc-s-top-gear-dismissed-by-u-k-court.
“fake” “Elon Musk Super Pissed About New York Times Tesla Range Test (UPDATE: The NY Times Responds).” Jalopnik, February 11, 2013. http://jalopnik.com/elon-musk-super-pissed-about-new-york-times-tesla-range-128299695.
facts shouldn’t get in the way of a salacious story” “A Most Peculiar Test Drive.” Tesla Motors Blog, February 13, 2013. https://www.tesla.com/blog/most-peculiar-test-drive.
questioned why taxpayers were subsidizing a company that sold expensive cars “Should Taxpayers Back a High-End Electric Carmaker?” New York Times, November 28, 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/30/business/30digi.html?fta=y.
“huge douchebag” “Tesla’s Elon Musk Calls NY Times Writer Stross ‘A Huge Douchebag… And An Idiot.” TechCrunch, April 10, 2009. https://techcrunch.com/2009/04/10/teslas-elon-musk-grows-a-pair-good-for-him/.
The Hollywood actor griped… “George Clooney, Elon Musk Trade Tesla Barbs.” The Hollywood Reporter, November 13, 2013. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/george-clooney-elon-musk-trade-655641.
Musk responded on Twitter by calling Walker an “idiot.” “Elon Musk Explains When He Thinks it's Okay To Call Someone an Idiot.” Fortune, December, 2017. http://fortune.com/2017/12/21/elon-musk-idiot-tweetstorm/.
labeling them “losers” “Ouch: Romney Calls Tesla a ‘Loser’.” Wired, October 3, 2012. https://www.wired.com/2012/10/romney-tesla-loser/.
right about the object of that statement “Elon Musk Responds to Sarah Palin’s Claim That Tesla Is a ‘Loser’.” Mashable, April 8, 2013. http://mashable.com/2013/04/08/elon-musk-sarah-palin/#ZRHhLWdS5kqY.
charged with fraud by the Securities and Exchange Commission “Preston Tucker: The Man Behind the Car.” Chicago Tribune, February 1, 2011. http://www.chicagotribune.com/classified/automotive/sc-cons-0127-autocover-side-20110127-story.html.
popular conspiracy theory “What If the Big Three Hadn’t Torpedoed Tucker?” Jalopnik, March 23, 2012. http://jalopnik.com/5895105/what-if-the-big-three-hadnt-torpedoed-tucker.
The wartime CEO’s companies depend on strict adherence to a mission, Horowitz wrote in 2011 “Peacetime CEO/Wartime CEO.” Ben’s Blog, April 14, 2011. http://www.bhorowitz.com/peacetime_ceo_wartime_ceo.
“We had multiple near death experiences” “The Impossible Choice That Had Elon Musk on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown.” Business Insider, November 27, 2014. http://www.businessinsider.com/elon-musk-on-failure-tesla-bankruptcy-2014-11.
“A general behind the lines is going to lose” “Electric-Car Pioneer Elon Musk Charges Head-On at Detroit.” Wall Street Journal, January 11, 2015. http://www.wsj.com/articles/electric-car-pioneer-elon-musk-charges-head-on-at-detroit-1421033527.
“People would have used Tesla as an example of just another stupid car company, basically” “The Impossible Choice That Had Elon Musk on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown.” Business Insider, November 27, 2014. http://www.businessinsider.com/elon-musk-on-failure-tesla-bankruptcy-2014-11.
“Success breeds complacency. Complacency breeds failure. Only the paranoid survive” “10 Classic CEO Quotes for Today’s Economy.” CBS Money Watch, September 28, 2009. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/10-classic-ceo-quotes-for-todays-economy/.
“When Henry Ford made cheap, reliable cars…” “Entrepreneur Tries His Midas Touch in Space.” Los Angeles Times, April 22, 2003. http://articles.latimes.com/2003/apr/22/business/fi-spacex22/3.
1997, the company was months away from bankruptcy “Steve Jobs: The Return, 1997–2011.” Bloomberg, October 6, 2011. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2011-10-06/steve-jobs-the-return-1997-2011.
Tesla reported its first quarterly profit “Tesla Surges on First-Ever Quarterly Profit.” CNN Money, May 8, 2013. http://money.cnn.com/2013/05/08/autos/tesla-earnings/.
Tesla is here to stay and keep fighting the electric car revolution” “Tesla Model S Sales Exceed Expectations as Company Predicts Profit.” Los Angeles Times, April 1, 2013. http://articles.latimes.com/2013/apr/01/autos/la-fi-hy-tesla-model-s-sales-exceed-companys-predictions-20130401.
Chapter 4: On Fire
fires in laptops that used Sony-made batteries “Why Lithium Batteries Keep Catching Fire.” The Economist, January 27, 2014. http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2014/01/economist-explains-19.
Boeing was forced to ground its entire Dreamliner fleet Ibid.
airlines banned so-called “hoverboards” “Airlines Ban Hoverboards Over Fire Concern.” Wall Street Journal, December 10, 2015. http://www.wsj.com/articles/airlines-ban-hoverboards-over-fire-concerns-1449753167.
New York Police Department tweeted photos of pillows that had been set alight “Don’t Sleep with Your Phone! NYPD Tweets Pics of Charred Pillows to Warn About Dangers of Charging Your Cell in Bed.” Daily Mail, February 18, 2016. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3453519/Don-t-sleep-phone-NYPD-tweets-pics-charred-pillows-warn-dangers-charging-cell-bed.html.
Samsung was forced to stop selling its Galaxy Note 7 devices “Samsung Scraps Galaxy Note 7 Over Fire Concerns.” Reuters, October 12, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-samsung-elec-smartphones-idUSKCN12A2JH.
occurring in a hundred million cells “Are Electric Vehicles a Fire Hazard?” MIT Technology Review, November 26, 2013. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/521976/are-electric-vehicles-a-fire-hazard/.
The system is designed to quickly chill the cells “Tesla or GM: Who Has the Best Battery Thermal Management?” InsideEVs, December 4, 2015. http://insideevs.com/tesla-or-gm-who-has-the-best-battery-thermal-management-bower/.
three Model S fires “Tesla Model S Probed by U.S. After Three Fires in 5 Weeks.” Bloomberg, November 18, 2013. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2013-11-19/u-s-regulator-opens-probe-of-fire-in-tesla-electric-cars.
The first of the combustible events happened in the first week “Tesla Fire in Seattle Shows Electrics Face Safety Challenges.” Associated Press, October 2, 2013. http://komonews.com/news/local/tesla-fire-in-seattle-shows-electrics-face-safety-challenges.
“Oh that’s a Tesla, dude!” “Tesla Car on Fire.” Aj Gill’s YouTube channel, October 1, 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q0kjI08n4fg&feature=player_embedded.
stock slid by 10 percent “Tesla Fire in Seattle Shows Electrics Face Safety Challenges.” Associated Press, October 2, 2013. http://komonews.com/news/local/tesla-fire-in-seattle-shows-electrics-face-safety-challenges.
another photogenic blaze “Tesla Shares Drop on Report of Second Model S Fire.” The Street, October 28, 2013. https://www.thestreet.com/story/12085507/1/tesla-shares-drop-on-report-of-second-model-s-fire.html.
The car had hit 110 miles per hour “The Mission of Tesla.” Tesla Motors Blog, November 18, 2013. http://www.teslamotors.com/blog/mission-tesla.
its share price dropped by 3 percent “Tesla Shares Drop on Report of Second Model S Fire.” The Street, October 28, 2013. https://www.thestreet.com/story/12085507/1/tesla-shares-drop-on-report-of-second-model-s-fire.html.
This time, a driver in Tennessee “From a Model S owner in Tennessee.” Tesla Motors Blog, November 9, 2013. http://www.teslamotors.com/customer-stories/model-s-owner-tennessee.
five-star safety rating “Tesla Model S Achieves Best Safety Rating of Any Car Ever Tested.” Tesla Motors Blog, August 19, 2013. https://www.tesla.com/blog/tesla-model-s-achieves-best-safety-rating-any-car-ever-tested?redirect=no.
the media were now looking at Tesla “Third Tesla Fire in 6 Weeks Could Spark Federal Inquiry.” Wired, November 7, 2013. https://www.wired.com/2013/11/3rd-tesla-model-s-fire/.
ABC News “Tesla Fires Raise Doubts About Seemingly Untouchable Company.” ABC News, November 9, 2013. http://abcnews.go.com/Business/tesla-fires-weeks-raise-doubts-elon-musks-company/story?id=20830108.
Tesla’s stock price tumbled another $15 per share “Tesla Stock Is Tanking After a Third Model S in Two Months Catches Fire.” Business Insider, November 7, 2013. http://www.businessinsider.com/third-tesla-model-s-catches-fire-2013-11.
“the share price shrinking from a high of $191 to $121.” “Tesla’s Third Model S Fire Adds to Woes, Stock Tumbles.” NBC News, November 7, 2013. http://www.nbcnews.com/business/autos/teslas-third-model-s-fire-adds-woes-stock-tumbles-f8c11553218; SLA: Historical Prices, 2013, Yahoo Finance, accessed October 28, 2016, https://yhoo.it/2eYw9Fg.
NHTSA opened an investigation “U.S. Launches Investigation Into Tesla Model S Fires.” Reuters, November 19, 2014. http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/11/19/us-autos-tesla-investigation-idUSBRE9AI0VX20131119.
“What the heck is going on?” “Musk ‘pistol whipped’ by Tesla fire news.” CNN Money, November 21, 2013. http://money.cnn.com/video/news/2013/11/21/n-elon-musk-telsa-fires-press-stock-valuation.cnnmoney/.
While the media ran with the story “The Mission of Tesla.” Tesla Motors Blog, November 18, 2013. http://www.teslamotors.com/blog/mission-tesla.
The shields were designed to deflect “Tesla Adds Titanium Underbody Shield and Aluminum Deflector Plates to Model S.” Tesla Motors Blog, March 28, 2014. https://www.tesla.com/blog/tesla-adds-titanium-underbody-shield-and-aluminum-deflector-plates-model-s.
“We believe these changes will also help prevent a fire…” Ibid.
NHTSA announced that it was closing its investigation “Tesla to Refit 16,000 Cars to Reduce the Rick of a Fire in a Crash.” Los Angeles Times, March 28, 2014. http://articles.latimes.com/2014/mar/28/business/la-fi-tesla-nhtsa-20140329.
In February 2014, a parked Model S combusted “Another Tesla Caught on Fire While Sitting in a Toronto Garage This Month.” Business Insider, February 13, 2014. http://www.businessinsider.com/february-1st-toronto-tesla-fire-2014-2.
In January 2016, a Model S burned down while at a Supercharger in Norway “Tesla Identifies Cause for Model S Fire in Norway.” Teslarati, March 17, 2016. http://www.teslarati.com/tesla-short-circuit-cause-for-model-s-norway-fire/.
In August 2016, a Model S caught fire during a test drive event in France “A Tesla Model S Caught Fire During a Test Drive in France.” Fortune, August 16, 2016. http://fortune.com/2016/08/16/tesla-model-s-fire/.
In March 2017, a parked Model S caught fire in Yorkshire, England “Tesla Model S caught fire in Yorkshire, Tesla says cause is due to a crash 2 months before the fire.” Electrek, March 31, 2017. https://electrek.co/2017/03/31/tesla-model-s-fire-manchester-crash/.
a Model S went up in flames after a highway smash “Tesla Model S fire vs 35 firefighters – watch impressive operation after a high-speed crash.” Electrek, October 18, 2017. https://electrek.co/2017/10/18/tesla-model-s-fire-high-speed-crash-video-impressive-operation/.
Chapter 5: Just Deal
wants to control the way its products are brought to market “Why Tesla Keeps Fighting for Direct Sales When It Could Just Work with Dealers.” Washington Post, October 22, 2014. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2014/10/22/why-tesla-keeps-fighting-for-direct-sales-when-it-could-just-work-with-dealers/.
“education venues” Ibid.
The luxe act of perusing a Tesla store “The Perfect Tesla Store.” Tesla Motors Blog, April 30, 2007. https://www.tesla.com/blog/perfect-tesla-store.
2015 survey by online retailer Autotrader “New Autotrader Study: Consumers Want Big Changes to the Car Buying Process.” Autotrader, March 31, 2015. http://press.autotrader.com/2015-03-31-New-Autotrader-Study-Consumers-Want-Big-Changes-to-the-Car-Buying-Process.
July 2016, after a mystery shopper survey “Mystery Shoppers Put Tesla Dealerships in Cellar – Again.” WardsAuto, July 11, 2016. http://wardsauto.com/dealer/mystery-shoppers-put-tesla-dealerships-cellar-again/.
“Tesla finishes last in being salesy! Good.” Elon Musk’s Twitter account, 6:47 p.m., July 11, 2016, https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/752680739213156353.
Consumer Reports conducted a secret survey “Dealers Not Always Plugged In About Electric Cars, Consumer Reports’ Study Reveals.” Consumer Reports, April 22, 2014. http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/news/2014/04/dealers-not-always-plugged-in-about-electric-cars-secret-shopper-study-reveals/index.htm.
2016 mystery shopper survey “Some Dealerships Don’t Really Want to Sell You an Electric Car.” Car and Driver, August 24, 2016. http://blog.caranddriver.com/some-dealerships-dont-really-want-to-sell-you-an-electric-car/.
“low-calorie doughnuts” “Consumers Shrug Fuel Efficiency Goals, McConnell Says.” Automotive News, August 5, 2015. http://blog.caranddriver.com/some-dealerships-dont-really-want-to-sell-you-an-electric-car/.
“can sell two gas burners in less than it takes to sell a Leaf” “A Car Dealers Won’t Sell: It’s Electric.” New York Times, November 24, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/01/science/electric-car-auto-dealers.html?_r=1.
The origins of Tesla’s battle “Dealer’s Choice.” The New Yorker, September 4, 2006. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2006/09/04/dealers-choice-2.
15 percent of all US sales tax revenue “Best of the Lot: What the Local Auto Dealer Brings to You and Your Community.” (sponsored content) Time, November 20, 2015. http://time.com/content-from/ally/s126725_0/best-of-the-lot-what-the-local-auto-dealer-brings-to-you-and-your-community/?ntv_a=Be8BASZ4EAG3wFA.
high as 20 percent “Why Buying a Car Never Changes.” Planet Money, February 19, 2013. http://www.npr.org/sections/money/2013/02/19/172402376/why-buying-a-car-never-changes.
employ more than a million Americans “Car Dealers Have Their Way With Congress.” The Intercept, November 23, 2015. https://theintercept.com/2015/11/23/car-dealers-have-their-way-with-congress/.
spent more than $3.2 million on campaign contributions “Car Dealers.” OpenSecrets.org, October 28, 2016. https://www.opensecrets.org/industries/indus.php?ind=T2300.
spent $3.49 million on lobbying efforts Ibid.
dealers associations argue that they protect consumers “Terrified of Tesla, NADA Launches Campaign to Tout Benefits of Dealerships.” The Car Connection, June 18, 2014. http://www.thecarconnection.com/news/1092795_terrified-of-tesla-nada-launches-campaign-to-tout-benefits-of-franchise-dealerships.
US Federal Trade Commission disagrees “Direct-to-Consumer Auto Sales: It’s Not Just About Tesla.” Federal Trade Commission, May 11, 2015. https://www.ftc.gov/news-events/blogs/competition-matters/2015/05/direct-consumer-auto-sales-its-not-just-about-tesla.
GM issued a statement “Statement on GM Support of Michigan House Bill 5606.” Corporate Newsroom, GM.com, October 21, 2014. http://media.gm.com/media/us/en/gm/news.detail.html/content/Pages/news/us/en/2014/Oct/1021-hb-5066.html.
Tesla doesn’t think the franchise laws are relevant “The Real Reason Why Dealer Associations Continue to Battle Tesla Motors Has Nothing to do With Tesla.” InsideEVs, 2013. http://insideevs.com/the-real-reason-why-dealer-associations-continue-to-battle-tesla-motors-has-nothing-to-do-with-tesla/.
Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court agreed “Tesla Prevails in Top Massachusetts Court Over Direct Sales.” Reuters, September 15, 2014. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-tesla-motors-massachusetts-lawsuit-idUSKBN0HA29620140915.
Justice Margot Botsford wrote Ibid.
half of the eight members were Governor Chris Christie’s political appointees “Commission Profile.” State of New Jersey Motor Vehicle Commission website, accessed April 28, 2017. http://www.state.nj.us/mvc/About/CommissionProfile.htm.
voted to rescind two sales licenses “Defending Innovation and Consumer Choice in New Jersey.” Tesla Motors Blog, March 11, 2014. https://www.tesla.com/blog/defending-innovation-and-consumer-choice-new-jersey?redirect=no.
Dozens of Tesla’s supporters, most of them Tesla owners, appeared at the meeting “Anti-Tesla Legislation Gets Passed in New Jersey Without Allowing Public Comment Until After the Fact.” InsideEVs, March 11, 2014. http://insideevs.com/anti-tesla-legislation-gets-passed-new-jersey-without-first-allowing-public-comment/.
Tesla had to change its existing stores in the state to “galleries” Ibid.
Unless they are referring to the mafia version of “protection”, this is obviously untrue “To the People of New Jersey.” Tesla Motors Blog, March 14, 2014. https://www.tesla.com/blog/people-new-jersey.
“Oh No He Didn’t” “Oh No He Didn’t: Elon Musk Throws Mafia, Bridge References at Gov. Christie.” Moneybeat, Wall Street Journal, March 14, 2014. http://blogs.wsj.com/moneybeat/2014/03/14/oh-no-he-didnt-elon-musk-throws-mafia-bridge-references-at-gov-christie/.
Chapter 6: Range Anxiety
“rated range” “What is ‘Rated Range’?” Tesla Motors Wiki, updated September 15, 2014. http://www.teslamotors.wiki/wiki/Q:_What_is_%22Rated_Range%22%3F.
EPA had found that the Model S had a range of 265 miles per charge “Tesla Model S Gets Official EPA Ratings: 265 Miles Range and 89 MPGe Efficiency.” Treehugger, June 21 2012. http://www.treehugger.com/cars/tesla-model-s-gets-official-epa-ratings-265-miles-range-and-89-mpge-efficiency.html.
five miles’ worth of energy for every hour of charging “High-Speed Charging for Electric Vehicles on Its Way, But Not Quite There Yet.” New York Daily News, December 23, 2013. http://www.nydailynews.com/autos/high-speed-charging-electric-vehicles-not-article-1.1552047.
220-volt outlet with 30–50 amps “Electric Car Charging Capabilities – Comparison of 27 Models.” EV Obsession, September 8, 2015. http://evobsession.com/electric-car-charging-capabilities-comparison-of-27-models/.
in 1997 in a San Diego Business Journal article “Getting Into Gear With the Vehicle of the Future.” San Diego Business Journal, September 1, 1997.
GM trademarked it “How GM Will Use Fear to Sell You a Chevy Volt.” Jalopnik, August 31, 2010. http://jalopnik.com/5626306/how-gm-will-use-fear-to-sell-you-a-chevy-volt.
trademarked the term to neuter its efficacy Ibid.
GM abandoned the trademark in 2011 “RANGE ANXIETY Trademark Information: General Motors LLC.” Trademarkia, accessed December 7, 2016. http://www.trademarkia.com/range-anxiety-85078275.html.
“It’s something we call ‘range anxiety,’ and it’s real” “How GM Will Use Fear to Sell You a Chevy Volt.” Jalopnik, August 31, 2010. http://jalopnik.com/5626306/how-gm-will-use-fear-to-sell-you-a-chevy-volt.
all-electric sedan that lets you “do it all” Chevrolet Bolt EV website, accessed December 7, 2016. http://www.chevrolet.com/bolt-ev-electric-vehicle.html.
drives just thirty-seven miles a day “Average Annual Miles Per Driver by Age Group.” Office of Highway Policy Information website, updated July 13, 2016. https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/onh00/bar8.htm.
Nissan Leaf, at 74 miles per charge, could replace 87 percent of cars on the road “Why Range Anxiety for Electric Cars Is Overblown.” MIT Technology Review, August 15, 2016. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/602174/why-range-anxiety-for-electric-cars-is-overblown/.
Consumer Reports noted that its Model S suffered reduced range in cold weather “Winter Chills Limit Range of the Tesla Model S.” Consumer Reports, February 15, 2013. http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/news/2013/02/winter-chills-limit-range-of-the-tesla-model-s-electric-car/index.htm.
Tesla owners reported comparable effects “Climate/Heating System in Cold Weather.” Tesla Forums, November 25, 2012. https://forums.tesla.com/forum/forums/climateheating-system-cold-weather.
survey of a hundred electric car owners by the research firm PlugInsights “Electric Car Drivers Report Impact from Extreme Cold.” Plugin Cars, January 8, 2014. http://www.plugincars.com/electric-car-drivers-report-cold-weather-impact-129218.html.
Tesla has claimed that the Model S loses about 10 percent of its range in cold weather “Elon Musk’s Crusade Against the New York Times Isn’t Helping Tesla.” The Wire, February 11, 2013. http://www.thewire.com/technology/2013/02/elon-musks-crusade-against-new-york-times-isnt-helping-tesla/62016/.
Tesla owners in cold and snowy Norway say they are happy with their cars’ winter performance “What Effect Does Cold Weather Have on the Battery Life of a Tesla Model S?” Quora, accessed December 7, 2016. https://www.quora.com/What-effect-does-cold-weather-have-on-the-battery-life-of-a-Tesla-Model-S.
one estimating that he lost between 10 and 20 percent of range for long trips in harsh conditions Comment by Bjorn Nyland, “Tesla Battery Range in Sub-Zero and Snowy Conditions.” Teslarati, February 8, 2015. http://disq.us/p/uj75vn.
Tesla owner from Massachusetts “Tesla Battery Range in Sub-Zero and Snowy Conditions.” Teslarati, February 8, 2015. http://www.teslarati.com/tesla-battery-range-sub-zero-snowy-conditions/.
“The Great Electric Car Quandary” “The Great Electric Car Quandary: How to Build a Charging Infrastructure Before Demand Grows.” Scientific American, August 14, 2009. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/electric-car-quandary/.
a letter writer to The New York Times “Menlo Park Laboratory; A Dispassionate Estimate of the Edison Light.” New York Times, February 16,1880; via “Of Clean Tech and Thomas Edison.” New York Times, March 24, 2009. http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/03/24/of-clean-tech-and-thomas-edison/?_r=0.
“An electric light bulb without ready access to electricity is a novelty “Tesla’s New Strategy is Over 100 Years Old.” Harvard Business Review, May 19, 2015. https://hbr.org/2015/05/teslas-new-strategy-is-over-100-years-old.
For cars bought from 2017 on, Tesla offers 400 kWh of free charging “As Tesla Grows Up, It Gives Up on Free Charging.” Wired, November 7, 2016. https://www.wired.com/2016/11/tesla-grows-gives-free-charging/.
Musk announced the technology at a party “Tesla Unveils Solar Supercharger Network: Drive For Free, On Sunlight.” The 9 Billion, September 25, 2012. http://www.the9billion.com/2012/09/25/tesla-unveils-solar-supercharger-network/.
press gave the announcement only tepidly interested write-ups “Tesla Reveals Supercharger Network It Says Will Cover the US in Two Years; Model S Fills Up For Free, Always.” Engadget, September 24, 2012. https://www.engadget.com/2012/09/24/tesla-supercharger/.
trip taken by Musk and his brother, Kimbal, in a beat‑up 1970s BMW 320i in 1994 Ashlee Vance, Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future (New York: Ecco, 2015), 57.
Cross Country Rally “Behind the Scenes of the Cross Country Rally: Episode One.” Tesla Motors Blog, April 10, 2014. http://www.teslamotors.com/blog/behind-scenes-cross-country-rally-episode-one; and “Behind the Scenes of Tesla’s Cross Country Rally: Episode One.” Tesla YouTube channel, April 10, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ou46vykyIAk.
The rally encountered a wild snowstorm “Behind the Scenes of the Cross Country Rally: Episode Two.” Tesla Motors Blog, April 18, 2014. https://www.tesla.com/blog/behind-scenes-cross-country-rally-episode-two.
closed the road over Vail Pass “Vail Pass.” Geographic Names Information System, United States Geological Survey, accessed December 7, 2016. https://geonames.usgs.gov/apex/f?p=gnispq:3:::NO::P3_FID:176167.
Tesla calculated that each car saved about $435 on fuel costs “Cross Country Rally: By the Numbers.” Tesla Motors Blog, February 3, 2014. https://www.tesla.com/blog/cross-country-rally-numbers.
first cross-country drive in a “horseless carriage” “The First Great American Road Trip.” History.com, 2012, accessed December 7, 2016. http://www.history.com/news/the-first-great-american-road-trip.
Chapter 7: Go Ahead, Start a Car Company
Tesla’s annual shareholders meeting on May 31, 2016 “Tesla Motors, Inc. 2016 Annual Shareholders Meeting.” Tesla Motors website, May 31, 2016. https://www.tesla.com/2016shareholdermeeting.
mail seeking investment for the project in an attempt to raise $100,000. Musk committed $10,000 Ashlee Vance, Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future (New York: Ecco, 2015), 148–149.
accelerate from zero to sixty miles per hour in under four seconds “Will the Real Tesla Founder Please Stand Up.” Wired, June 25, 2009. https://www.wired.com/2009/06/tesla-founder/.
NuvoMedia “The Making of Tesla: Invention, Betrayal, and the Birth of the Roadster.” Business Insider, November 11, 2014. http://www.businessinsider.com/tesla-the-origin-story-2014-10.
sold the company in January 2000 to Gemstar “Racing Back to the Future With New-Age Electric Cars.” New York Times, June 28, 2006. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/28/technology/28iht-ptcar.2074732.html.
considered developing an elaborate irrigation system Ashlee Vance, Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future (New York: Ecco, 2015), 150.
automakers had been outsourcing many aspects of vehicle production “Big Three’s Outsourcing Plan: Make Parts Suppliers Do It.” Wall Street Journal, June 10, 2004. http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB108681404285632984.
third friend and neighbor named Ian Wright, had incorporated a company they called Tesla Motors, “Q&A with Ian Wright: The CEO of Wrightspeed on Tesla, Gas Turbines and Electric Trucks.” Charged, July 15, 2014. https://chargedevs.com/features/qa-with-ian-wright-the-ceo-of-wrightspeed-on-tesla-gas-turbines-and-electric-trucks/.
Straubel, who had become the chief technology officer, was given the honor of the first drive “The Making of Tesla: Invention, Betrayal, and the Birth of the Roadster.” Business Insider, November 11, 2014. http://www.businessinsider.com/tesla-the-origin-story-2014-10.
At the 2016 shareholders meeting “Tesla Motors, Inc. 2016 Annual Shareholders Meeting.” Tesla Motors website, May 31, 2016. https://www.tesla.com/2016shareholdermeeting.
“It was my first four-second zero-to-60 experience…” “Tesla Motors, Inc. 2016 Annual Shareholders Meeting.” Tesla Motors website, May 31, 2016. https://www.tesla.com/2016shareholdermeeting.
Musk drove the mule, too Ashlee Vance, Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future (New York: Ecco, 2015), 158.
another $9 million into Tesla as part of a $13 million Series B funding round “Tesla, February 1, 2005 – Founding Round – Series B.” Crunchbase, accessed April 28, 2017. https://www.crunchbase.com/funding-round/ee3faaa92354502d4cffb0cd602c35f8.
raised another $40 million Ashlee Vance, Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future (New York: Ecco, 2015), 161.
convinced friends Larry Page and Sergey Brin, the founders of Google, to join in, too “Tesla Motors, Inc. 2016 Annual Shareholders Meeting.” Tesla Motors website, May 31, 2016. https://www.tesla.com/2016shareholdermeeting.
Roadster was unveiled to the press in July 2006 “Tesla Roadster Unveiled in Santa Monica.” Autoblog, July 20, 2006. http://www.autoblog.com/2006/07/20/tesla-roadster-unveiled-in-santa-monica/.
“If you took the energy in a gallon of gas…” “Batteries Included.” Wired, August 1, 2006. https://www.wired.com/2006/08/tesla-3/.
couldn’t be made in time for the planned September 2007 launch “The Making of Tesla: Invention, Betrayal, and the Birth of the Roadster.” Business Insider, November 11, 2014. http://www.businessinsider.com/tesla-the-origin-story-2014-10.
Musk blamed Eberhard’s mismanagement Ashlee Vance, Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future (New York: Ecco, 2015), 165–170.
what was taking so long Revenge of the Electric Car. Directed by Chris Paine, Los Angeles: Papercut Films, 2011.
act on a plan to relieve Eberhard of his CEO responsibilities “The Making of Tesla: Invention, Betrayal, and the Birth of the Roadster.” Business Insider, November 11, 2014. http://www.businessinsider.com/tesla-the-origin-story-2014-10.
Musk called Eberhard to tell him that Michael Marks Ibid.
Tarpenning also left “Tesla’s Founding Team: Where Are They Now?” Electrek, May 16, 2015. https://electrek.co/2015/05/16/teslas-original-team-where-are-they-now/.
“have problems with Elon and the way he treats people” “Tesla’s Wild Ride.” Fortune, July 9, 2008. http://archive.fortune.com/2008/07/07/technology/copeland_tesla.fortune/index.htm.
“I was too busy trying to fix the fucking mess he left,” Ibid.
“I have never met someone who is as capable of creating such a disinformation campaign as Martin Eberhard.” Ibid.
he thought Musk was a “terrible CEO.” “Tesla’s Electric Car Loses Its Juice.” Newsweek, November 14, 2008. http://www.newsweek.com/daniel-lyons-teslas-electric-car-loses-its-juice-85403.
Eberhard sued Musk and Tesla for slander “What the Tesla Founders’ Feud Can Teach Entrepreneurs.” Reuters, June 22, 2009. http://blogs.reuters.com/small-business/2009/06/22/tesla-founders-feud-a-cautionary-tale/; “Martin Eberhard vs. Elon Musk; Tesla Motors, Inc.” Civil Case 484400, Superior Court of the State of California in and for the County of San Mateo.” filed May 26, 2009.
blog post that itemized Eberhard’s alleged missteps as CEO “Elon Musk Smacks Down Eberhard, Predicts Tesla Profitability Next Month.” Jalopnik, June 22, 2009. http://jalopnik.com/5300053/elon-musk-smacks-down-eberhard-predicts-tesla-profitability-next-month.
In September 2009, the parties announced that they had settled the suit “Tesla Founders End Bitter Legal Fight.” Los Angeles Times, September 22, 2009. http://articles.latimes.com/2009/sep/22/business/fi-tesla22.
five official cofounders “Tesla Motors Founders: Now There Are Five.” Cnet, September 21, 2009. https://www.cnet.com/news/tesla-motors-founders-now-there-are-five/.
had argued against selling the company to eBay “Elon Musk’s Risky Business.” Men’s Journal, August 3, 2012. http://www.mensjournal.com/magazine/elon-musk-s-risky-business-20120803.
believing that it could become much more than a facilitator of online payments “Can PayPal Beat Apple, Google, Amazon and Icahn in the Wallet Wars?” Forbes, February 12, 2014. http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevenbertoni/2014/02/12/can-paypal-beat-apple-google-amazon-and-icahn-in-the-wallet-wars/#34ee295c638a.
Tesla replaced Marks in December 2007 with Ze’ev Drori “Tesla Names Ze’ev Drori New CEO.” San Jose Mercury News, November 28, 2007. http://www.mercurynews.com/2007/11/28/2007-tesla-names-zeev-drori-new-ceo/.
Drori’s career “Tesla Names Ze’ev Drori As New Permanent CEO.” Autoblog, November 28, 2007. http://www.autoblog.com/2007/11/28/breaking-tesla-names-zeev-drori-as-new-permanent-ceo/.
Musk was making all the major decisions “Elon Musk’s Ground-Breaking Electric Car.” Financial Times, July 24, 2009. https://www.ft.com/content/e117987e-74eb-11de-9ed5-00144feabdc0.
delivery of the first production Roadster “First Production Electric Tesla Roadster Delivered.” Treehugger, February 6, 2008. http://www.treehugger.com/cars/first-production-electric-tesla-roadster-delivered.html.
“So far, this is a very expensive car…” Revenge of the Electric Car. Directed by Chris Paine, Los Angeles: Papercut Films, 2011.
Fisker Automotive went out of business in 2013 “The Real Lesson of Fisker Auto’s Failure.” The Atlantic, April 24, 2013. http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2013/04/fisker-automotive-failure/315946/.
bought by Chinese auto parts producer Wanxiang Group “Fisker Assets Sold for $149 Million to Wanxiang, Chinese Parts Maker.” Green Car Reports, February 15, 2014. http://www.greencarreports.com/news/1090379_fisker-assets-sold-for-149-million-to-wanxiang-chinese-parts-maker.
planned a relaunch of the flagship car “China’s Wanxiang to Relaunch Fisker Karma Car With 2012 Design – Sources.” Reuters, September 18, 2014. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-fisker-wanxiang-idUSKBN0HD2H320140918.
Coda Automotive also filed for bankruptcy in 2013 “Coda Automotive Declares Bankruptcy.” Car and Driver, May 2, 2013. http://blog.caranddriver.com/coda-automotive-declares-bankruptcy-whoda-thunk-it/.
switched its focus to energy storage “Coda Becomes Latest Electric Car Failure.” USA Today, May 5, 2013. http://www.usatoday.com/story/driveon/2013/05/01/coda-bankruptcy-electric-car/2127673/.
acquired by a small energy company called Exergonic “Is the Third Time a Charm for Coda’s Energy Storage Business?” Green Tech Media, May 17, 2016. http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/is-the-third-time-a-charm-for-codas-energy-storage-business.
The DeLorean Motor Company went into receivership in 1982 “The DeLorean’s Time Leap.” Bloomberg, April 19, 2012. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2012-04-19/the-deloreans-time-leap.
Youngest-ever GM executive “DeLorean, John Z.” GM Heritage Center website, accessed December 8, 2016. https://history.gmheritagecenter.com/wiki/index.php/DeLorean,_John_Z.
credited him with creating America’s first muscle car “30 Years Later, ‘Back to the Future’ Car in Legal Battle.” Associated Press, January 9, 2015. http://finance.yahoo.com/news/30-years-later-back-future-070409821.html.
raised tens of millions in venture capital “The DeLorean’s Time Leap.” Bloomberg, April 19, 2012. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2012-04-19/the-deloreans-time-leap.
disappointing 10.5 seconds “1982 DeLorean DMC-12: The Vintage Road & Track Test.” October 21, 2015. http://www.roadandtrack.com/car-culture/classic-cars/reviews/a27099/1982-delorean-dmc-12-road-test/.
Federal Bureau of Investigation sting “10 Things You Probably Didn’t Know About the Iconic DeLorean That’s Making a Comeback.” Maxim, February 9, 2016. http://www.maxim.com/rides/10-things-to-know-delorean-comeback-2016-2.
Deepak Ahuja, who has recently joined the company from Ford “Tesla Hires Deepak Ahuja Away From Ford to Serve As CFO.” Autoblog, August 4, 2008. http://www.autoblog.com/2008/08/04/tesla-hires-deepak-ahuja-away-from-ford-to-serve-as-cfo/.
Tesla has burned through $100 million Revenge of the Electric Car. Directed by Chris Paine, Los Angeles: Papercut Films, 2011.
cut 30 percent from the Roadster’s power train costs “Tesla Finally Turns a Profit.” Wired, August 7, 2009. https://www.wired.com/2009/08/tesla-profit/.
“Jesus! We have, like, an army of cars here” Ibid.
“Elon’s going to lose his shirt!” Revenge of the Electric Car. Directed by Chris Paine, Los Angeles: Papercut Films, 2011.
down to its last $9 million “Tesla Motors Has $9 Million in the Bank, May Not Deliver Cars.” Gawker, October 30, 2008. http://gawker.com/5071621/tesla-motors-has-9-million-in-the-bank-may-not-deliver-cars.
The company delays its plan to raise $100 million “Tesla Promised Another $40 Million, Loses Lawsuit.” Bits Blog, New York Times, November 3, 2008. http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/11/03/tesla-promised-another-40-million/?_r=0.
Musk takes over from Drori as CEO “Tesla Motors Zaps Another C.E.O. and Lays Off Staff.” Bits Blog, New York Times, October 15, 2008. http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/10/15/tesla-motors-zaps-another-ceo-and-lays-off-staff/?_r=0.
Franz von Holzhausen, hired from Mazda “Franz von Holzhausen Joins Tesla Motors as Chief Designer.” Tesla Motors press release, August 6, 2008. http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20080806006248/en/Franz-von-Holzhausen-Joins-Tesla-Motors-Chief.
lays off a quarter of the company’s 360- odd employees “Tesla May Lay Off 24% of Staff.” Los Angeles Times, October 25, 2008. http://articles.latimes.com/2008/oct/25/business/fi-tesla25.
Musk is going through a divorce with Justine “I Was a Starter Wife: Inside America’s Messiest Divorce.” Marie Claire, September 10, 2010. http://www.marieclaire.com/sex-love/advice/a5380/millionaire-starter-wife/.
“I thought things were probably fucking doomed Ashlee Vance, Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future (New York: Ecco, 2015), 206.
“I couldn’t even maintain my composure” “The Impossible Choice That Had Elon Musk On The Verge Of A Nervous Breakdown.” Business Insider, November 27, 2014. http://www.businessinsider.com/elon-musk-on-failure-tesla-bankruptcy-2014-11.
put in $20 million of his own Ashlee Vance, Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future (New York: Ecco, 2015), 208.
sale of his cousins’ data-center startup Everdream Ibid., 208.
Several Tesla employees contributed in increments of $25,000 and $50,000 Ibid., 207.
At 6:00 p.m. on December 24 “The Impossible Choice That Had Elon Musk On The Verge Of A Nervous Breakdown.” Business Insider, November 27, 2014. http://www.businessinsider.com/elon-musk-on-failure-tesla-bankruptcy-2014-11.
the team was fiddling with its parts and fixing the seats Ashlee Vance, Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future (New York: Ecco, 2015), 284; and Revenge of the Electric Car. Directed by Chris Paine, Los Angeles: Papercut Films, 2011.
with Wired calling it “stunning” “First Look At Tesla’s Stunning Model S.” Wired, March 26, 2009. http://www.wired.com/2009/03/first-look-of-t/.
New York Times comparing it to a Maserati “Tesla Model S Electric Sedan Breaks Cover.” Wheels Blog, New York Times, March 26, 2009. http://wheels.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/03/26/tesla-model-s-electric-sedan-breaks-cover/.
“Not enough time to sleep” Revenge of the Electric Car. Directed by Chris Paine, Los Angeles: Papercut Films, 2011.
Musk and Straubel identified Tesla’s savior “Tesla Motors, Inc. 2016 Annual Shareholders Meeting.” Tesla Motors website, May 31, 2016. https://www.tesla.com/2016shareholdermeeting.
Musk met with Dr. Thomas Weber Ibid.
“I was like, ‘Okay, wow…” Ibid.
$465 million loan from the US Department of Energy “Tesla: Project Summary.” Energy.gov Loans Program Office website, accessed December 8, 2016, http://www.energy.gov/lpo/tesla.
Toyota bought a 2.5 percent stake in the company “Toyota Sells Some Tesla Motors Shares.” Reuters, October 23, 2014. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-toyota-tesla-shares-idUSKCN0IC29U20141023.
Toyota originally wanted more than $100 million Ashlee Vance, Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future (New York: Ecco, 2015), 289.
After a breakfast at Musk’s house “Tesla Motors, Inc. 2016 Annual Shareholders Meeting.” Tesla Motors website, May 31, 2016. https://www.tesla.com/2016shareholdermeeting.
Toyota CEO Akio Toyoda told his company to accept the offer “Confirmed: Tesla to build electric vehicles with Toyota at NUMMI plant.” VentureBeat, May 20, 2010. http://venturebeat.com/2010/05/20/tesla-and-toyota-teaming-up-to-build-electric-cars-schwarzenegger-lets-slip/.
hoped to raise up to $178 million “Tesla IPO Goal: $178 Million.” Inc, June 16, 2010. http://www.inc.com/news/articles/2010/06/tesla-ipo-set-for-end-of-june.html.
“You don’t want to own this stock!” Revenge of the Electric Car. Directed by Chris Paine, Los Angeles: Papercut Films, 2011.
By the time the market closed, Tesla’s stock had surged to $23.89 “Tesla IPO Raises $226.1 Million, Stock Surges 41 Percent.” Wired, June 29, 2010. https://www.wired.com/2010/06/tesla-ipo-raises-226-1-million/.
$226 million Ibid.
lifted his left arm in triumph “Tesla IPO Gains Speed.” SF Gate, June 30, 2010. http://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/Tesla-IPO-gains-speed-3260408.php.
it sold $158.5 million worth in stock “Elon Musk to buy $40M in Tesla Motors shares.” San Francisco Business Times, May 25, 2011. http://www.bizjournals.com/sanfrancisco/news/2011/05/25/elon-musk-to-buy-40m-in-tesla-motors.html.
considered selling to Google “Elon Musk Had a Deal to Sell Tesla to Google in 2013.” Businessweek, April 20, 2015. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-04-20/elon-musk-had-a-deal-to-sell-tesla-to-google-in-2013.
billion-dollar financing arrangement Tesla Motors raises more than $1 billion from debt, equity.” Reuters, May 17, 2013. http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/05/17/autos-tesla-debt-idUSL2N0DY12C20130517.
The day after Tesla reported its first profitable quarter “Tesla Earns First Profit – $11 Million in Q1.” USA Today, May 8, 2013. http://www.usatoday.com/story/money/cars/2013/05/08/tesla-first-profit/2145065/.
none of the car companies that had received bailouts “Tesla Repays Department of Energy Loan Nine Years Early.” Tesla Motors Blog, May 22, 2013. https://www.tesla.com/blog/tesla-repays-department-energy-loan-nine-years-early.
Consumer Reports called the Model S the best car it had ever tested “Tesla: Consumer Reports’ Best Car Ever Tested.” CNN Money, May 9, 2013. http://money.cnn.com/2013/05/09/autos/tesla-model-s-consumer-reports/index.html.
Model S was the highest-selling premium sedan on the market “Tesla Sales Beating Mercedes, BMW and Audi.” CNN Money, May 13, 2013. http://money.cnn.com/2013/05/13/autos/tesla-sales-bmw-mercedes-audi/index.html?hpt=hp_t2.
Model S deliveries started in Europe “Tesla’s First European Deliveries to Environment Friendly Norway.” The Nordic Page, February 27, 2013. http://www.tnp.no/norway/economy/3569-teslas-first-european-deliveries-to-environment-friendly-norway.
best possible safety rating “Tesla Model S Achieves Best Safety Rating of Any Car Ever Tested.” Tesla Motors Blog, August 19, 2013. https://www.tesla.com/blog/tesla-model-s-achieves-best-safety-rating-any-car-ever-tested?redirect=no.
Fortune named Musk its businessperson of the year “2013’s Top People in Business.” Fortune, November 21, 2013. http://fortune.com/2013/11/21/2013s-top-people-in-business/.
Consumer Reports named the Model S its top pick for the year “Consumer Reports’ Top Picks 2014.” Consumer Reports, February 4, 2014. http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/magazine/2014/04/top-picks-2014/index.htm.
revealed plans for a battery factory “Gigafactory.” Tesla Motors Blog, February 26, 2014. https://www.tesla.com/blog/gigafactory.
Top Gear magazine called the Model S the most important car it had tested “Maserati Ghibli Takes on Tesla Model S.” Top Gear Magazine, April 4, 2014. http://www.topgear.com/car-news/review/maserati-ghibli-takes-tesla-model-s.
started deliveries in China “Tesla Delivers Its First Electric Cars in China; Delays Upset Some.” Los Angeles Times, April 22, 2014. http://www.latimes.com/business/autos/la-fi-hy-tesla-elon-musk-china-20140422-story.html.
Model S was delivered to the UK in June “Now Model S Has a British Accent.” Tesla Motors Blog, June 11, 2014. https://www.tesla.com/zh_HK/blog/now-model-s-has-british-accent.
Tesla would make its patents freely available “All Our Patent Are Belong To You.” Tesla Motors Blog, June 12, 2014. https://www.tesla.com/blog/all-our-patent-are-belong-you.
America’s most important car company “Tesla Motors: ‘America’s Most Important Car Company’.” Stocks to Watch blog, Barrons, June 13, 2014. http://blogs.barrons.com/stockstowatchtoday/2014/06/13/tesla-motors-americas-most-important-car-company/.
another plaudit from Consumer Reports “Consumer Reports: Tesla Model S ‘Best Overall’ Again in 2015.” Green Car Reports, February 25, 2015. http://www.greencarreports.com/news/1096975_consumer-reports-tesla-model-s-best-overall-again-in-2015.
Tesla’s stock price hit $291 “Historical Stock Lookup.” Tesla Motors website, accessed December 8, 2016. http://ir.tesla.com/stocklookup.cfm.
more than 70,000 Teslas on the road “How Many Tesla Model S Electric Cars Have Been Built So Far?” Green Car Reports, January 16, 2015. http://www.greencarreports.com/news/1096339_how-many-tesla-model-s-electric-cars-have-been-built-so-far.
episode of The Simpsons “The Musk Who Fell To Earth.” The Simpsons, Season 26, Episode 12, January 25, 2015. http://simpsons.wikia.com/wiki/The_Musk_Who_Fell_to_Earth.
“the world’s raddest man” “Elon Musk: The World’s Raddest Man.” by Tim Urban, Wait But Why, May 7, 2015. http://waitbutwhy.com/2015/05/elon-musk-the-worlds-raddest-man.html.
The city’s railroads, once prominent “Follow Tracks for Clues to Nevada’s Railroad History.” Las Vegas Review-Journal, April 14, 2013. http://www.reviewjournal.com/columns-blogs/trip-week/follow-tracks-clues-nevadas-railroad-history.
ground-breaking for the electric car startup’s vehicle assembly plant “Faraday Future Breaks Ground on $1B Electric Car Factory Outside Las Vegas.” Inhabitat, April 15, 2016. http://inhabitat.com/faraday-future-breaks-ground-on-1b-electric-car-factory-outside-las-vegas/.
About twenty reporters from China were present for the ceremony My reporting.
“… we want to do it in half the time” “Faraday Future Breaks Ground on $1B Electric Car Factory Outside Las Vegas.” Inhabitat, April 15, 2016. http://inhabitat.com/faraday-future-breaks-ground-on-1b-electric-car-factory-outside-las-vegas/.
announced itself via press release “New Electric Car Company Emerges: Faraday Future.” Motor Trend, July 15, 2015. http://www.motortrend.com/news/new-california-based-electric-car-company-emerges-faraday-future/.
Hyperloop One “Hyperloop One Announces Opening of North Las Vegas Manufacturing Plant.” Las Vegas Sun, July 27, 2016. http://lasvegassun.com/news/2016/jul/27/hyperloop-one-announces-north-las-vegas-manufactur/.
Bigelow Aerospace “BEAM: A Space Habitat Created in North Las Vegas.” Las Vegas Sun, May 18, 2015. http://lasvegassun.com/news/2015/may/18/beam-space-habitat-being-created-north-las-vegas/.
delivered a BEAM to the International Space Station “SpaceX Drago Arrives at Space Station, Delivers Inflatable Room Prototype.” Space.com, April 10, 2016. http://www.space.com/32528-spacex-dragon-delivers-inflatable-room-space-station.html.
subsequently landed itself “Amazing Videos Show SpaceX’s Epic Ocean Rocket Landing.” Space.com, April 10, 2016. http://www.space.com/32527-spacex-rocket-landing-sea-amazing-videos.html.
“ground zero for the Great Recession” “Strip Left Reeling: Picking Up the Pieces After the Great Recession.” Las Vegas Review-Journal, March 27, 2016. http://www.reviewjournal.com/business/neon-rebirth/strip-left-reeling-picking-the-pieces-after-the-great-recession.
worst affected major city in the US “The Stunning Crash and Burn of Las Vegas.” Business Insider, June 11, 2010. http://www.businessinsider.com/the-stunning-crash-and-burn-of-las-vegas-2010-6.
unemployment rose to a record high 14.8 percent “Las Vegas Jobless Rate Hits All-Time High of 13.1 Percent.” Las Vegas Review-Journal, August 21, 2009. http://www.reviewjournal.com/news/las-vegas-jobless-rate-hits-all-time-high-131-percent.
still ranked third in the country for joblessness “Nevada’s Unemployment Rate is the Lowest in 5 Years.” Reno Gazette-Journal, January 27, 2016. http://www.rgj.com/story/money/business/2016/01/27/nevadas-unemployment-rate-lowest-5-years/79404394/.
photographed with hard hats on and shovels in the ground “Faraday Future Breaks Ground on $1B Electric Car Factory Outside Las Vegas.” Inhabitat, April 15, 2016. http://inhabitat.com/faraday-future-breaks-ground-on-1b-electric-car-factory-outside-las-vegas/.
“We say the things we believe…” “Tesla Motors, Inc. 2016 Annual Shareholders Meeting.” Tesla Motors website, May 31, 2016. https://www.tesla.com/2016shareholdermeeting.
Chapter 8: California Dreaming
“What the hell is that?” “Racing into the Faraday Future.” TechCrunch YouTube channel, January 8, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u3M86DwBkkM.
unveiled three days earlier “Faraday Future Reveals “Car of Concept” FF Zero 1 @ CES 2016 – The First Electric Supercar is Born.” The Motorist YouTube channel, January 5, 2016,.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qEVyaGK6Kek.
“a car of concepts” Ibid.
whose CV included Jaguar “Interviewing Faraday Future’s SVP of R&D, Nick Sampson.” Clean Technica, April 13, 2016. https://cleantechnica.com/2016/04/13/interviewing-faraday-futures-svp-of-rd-nick-sampson-exclusive-video-interview/.
Faraday Future had announced plans “New Electric Car Company Emerges: Faraday Future.” Motor Trend, July 15, 2015. http://www.motortrend.com/news/new-california-based-electric-car-company-emerges-faraday-future/.
Motor Trend magazine announced Faraday’s existence Ibid.
company was funded by Jia Yueting “Who Is Jia Yueting, the Chinese Billionaire Linked to Faraday?” Los Angeles Times, November 6, 2015. http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-jia-yueting-explainer-20151106-htmlstory.html.
planning to produce the cars in a $1 billion factory “Faraday Future Aims to Take on Tesla Motors With $1 Billion Investment.” Wall Street Journal, November 5, 2015. http://www.wsj.com/articles/faraday-future-aims-to-take-on-tesla-motors-with-1-billion-investment-1446719581.
subscriptions, apps, car sharing, and “other opportunities” “Chinese-Backed Startup Targets Tesla With $1 Billion U.S. Plant.” Bloomberg, November 5, 2015. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-11-05/chinese-backed-startup-targets-tesla-with-1-billion-u-s-plant.
first launch a single model Ibid.
“a glimpse into the future” AutoGuide Twitter account, 7:28 p.m., January 4, 2016, https://twitter.com/AutoGuide/status/684214892304273408.
“1,000-horsepower Batmobile” “Faraday Throws It in Reverse With a 1,000-Horsepower Batmobile.” Bloomberg, January 5, 2016. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-01-05/faraday-throws-it-in-reverse-with-1-000-horsepower-batmobile.
The Guardian reported that Faraday had initially planned to reveal a working prototype “Inside Faraday Future: Is It Really a Big Player in the Future of Electric Cars?” The Guardian, February 26, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/feb/26/faraday-future-jia-yueting-electric-vehicles-tesla-letv.
cost $2 million to produce “Report: Faraday Future’s First Car Will be ‘No Tesla Killer’” Road & Track, February 27, 2016. http://www.roadandtrack.com/new-cars/future-cars/news/a28311/faraday-future-no-tesla-killer-report/.
Jia had humble beginnings “Who Is Jia Yueting, the Chinese Billionaire Linked to Faraday?” Los Angeles Times, November 6, 2015. http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-jia-yueting-explainer-20151106-htmlstory.html.
according to Chinese newspaper articles “Taking on Tesla: China’s Jia Yueting Aims to Outmuscle Musk.” Reuters, April 25, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-autoshow-beijing-china-leeco-insight-idUSKCN0XL11X.
Jia started LeTV in 2004 but remained as Sinotel’s executive chairman “Jia Yueting,” China Cultural Industry Association website, accessed December 9, 2016, http://www.chncia.org/en/leaders.php?mid=2&id=18.
The company’s 2014 annual report Sinotel Annual Report 2014, available at http://www.sinotel.com.sg/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/sinotel-annual-report-2014.pdf.
Sinotel announced it was delisting Sinotel delisting document available at http://infopub.sgx.com/FileOpen/Sinotel-Loss%20of%20Public%20Float.ashx?App=Announcement&FileID=390518.
went public on the Shenzhen stock exchange in 2010 “From LeTV to LeEco: A Video Website Grows into a Tech Empire with Global Ambitions,” AllChinaTech, February 8, 2016, http://www.allchinatech.com/from-letv-to-leeco-a-video-website-grows-into-a-tech-empire-with-global-ambitions/.
started a film production division “Who Is Jia Yueting, the Chinese Billionaire Linked to Faraday?”, Los Angeles Times, November 6, 2015, http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-jia-yueting-explainer-20151106-htmlstory.html.
market valuation of about $14 billion and rebranded itself to LeEco “LeTV Becomes LeEco, New Brand and Logo Unveiled,” Android Headlines, January 13, 2016, http://www.androidheadlines.com/2016/01/letv-becomes-leeco-new-brand-and-logo-unveiled.html.
Jia’s personal net worth “#37 Jia Yueting,” Forbes, accessed December 9, 2016, http://www.forbes.com/profile/jia-yueting/.
experts estimate will be widely available in 2020 “What is 5G and How Will It Make My Life Better?,” Gizmodo, February 24, 2016, http://gizmodo.com/what-is-5g-and-how-will-it-make-my-life-better-1760847799.
Jia announced on his Sina Weibo microblogging account “Jia Yueting Plans to Enter Automotive Field,” Sina, November 27, 2014, http://tech.sina.com.cn/i/2014-11-27/04529830452.shtml. [translated from Chinese]
Jia had been linked to the corruption investigation of Ling Zhengche “Another Brother in Prominent Shanxi Family is Target of Graft Investigation,” Caixin, November 28, 2014, http://english.caixin.com/2014-11-28/100756772.html.
He was jailed for life “Chinese Court Jails Former Presidential Aide Ling Jihua for Life,” The Guardian, July 4, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jul/04/chinese-court-jails-former-presidential-aide-ling-jihua-for-life.
“The success of LeTV is based in no way on government connections” “China’s LeTV Head Denies Links to Communist Party Corruption Probe,” The Hollywood Reporter, October 23, 2014, http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/chinas-letv-denies-links-corruption-743275.
explained his prolonged absence from China to Reuters “Taking on Tesla: China’s Jia Yueting Aims to Outmuscle Musk,” Reuters, April 25, 2016, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-autoshow-beijing-china-leeco-insight-idUSKCN0XL11X.
Jia had been seen in meetings in Silicon Valley “Hong Kong Media Says Jia Yueting in Hong Kong for Thymoma Surgery,” NetEase Technology News, November 22, 2014, http://tech.163.com/14/1122/11/ABLC5K1S000915BF.html. [translated from Chinese]
Jia had also said on Sina Weibo “Jia Yueting Plans to Enter Automotive Field,” Sina, November 27, 2014, http://tech.sina.com.cn/i/2014-11-27/04529830452.shtml. [translated from Chinese]
Wall Street Journal detailed his “unorthodox” methods of funding his operations “Unorthodox Financing Fuels a Tech Dream in China,” Wall Street Journal, May 4, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/unorthodox-financing-fuels-a-tech-dream-in-china-1462381678.
would build an internet-connected electric car “Chinese Internet Company Seeks License to Make Electric Car,” Bloomberg, December 10, 2014, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-12-09/china-internet-company-to-build-electric-cars-to-fight-pollution.
already had 260 engineers in California “LeTV Becomes Major Investor in Charging Station Producer,” China Technology News, September 28, 2015, http://www.technologynewschina.com/2015/09/letv-becomes-major-investor-in-charging.html.
Jia was calling the planned vehicle “LeSupercar” “A Chinese Billionaire is Building ‘Le Supercar’ to Take on Tesla,” Business Insider, September 6, 2015, http://www.businessinsider.com.au/a-chinese-billionaire-is-building-le-supercar-to-take-on-tesla-2015-9.
Each car, made of a lightweight combination of aluminum, steel, carbon, and Kevlar honeycomb “What Makes Formula E Cars Tick,” New York Times, April 22, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/23/sports/autoracing/what-makes-formula-e-cars-tick.html?_r=1.
powered by glycerin “Formula E Uses Pollution-Free Glycerine to Charge Cars,” Formula E website, September 13, 2014, http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2014/september/formula-e-uses-pollution-free-glycerine-to-charge-cars.aspx.
Faraday Future was the title sponsor at the 2016 Long Beach ePrix “Charged Up Over Formula E in Long Beach,” Los Angeles Times, April 1, 2016, http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-electric-grand-prix-20160402-story.html.
The city had fenced off a 1.25-mile loop “Fact Sheet XXL, Round 6 – Formula E Long Beach,” media kit, April 2, 2016.
Banners hung on aqua blush mesh affixed to wire fences The following scenes are based on my reporting.
Leach passed away in late 2016 “Martin Leach, Former Head of Maserati, Ford of Europe, Dies at 59,” Automotive News, November 2, 2016, http://www.autonews.com/article/20161102/OEM02/161109965/martin-leach-former-head-of-maserati-ford-of-europe-dies-at-59.
Nio was backed by Chinese money “Electric Car Startups Fueled by Chinese Money Aim to Catch Tesla,” Reuters, June 14, 2016, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-autos-chinaev-idUSKCN0Z02IA.
He started racing karts when was eleven years old “2004 Man of the Year,” Automobile, March 3, 2004, http://www.automobilemag.com/news/leach/; and my reporting.
Automobile magazine named Leach its “Man of the Year” “2004 Man of the Year,” Automobile, March 3, 2004, http://www.automobilemag.com/news/leach/.
Leach sued Ford in 2003 “Leach Sues Ford Europe Over Loss of Top Fiat Job,” WardsAuto, November 19, 2003, http://wardsauto.com/news-analysis/leach-sues-ford-europe-over-loss-top-fiat-job.
Leonardo DiCaprio, drinking champagne and wearing a grey flat cap “Leonardo DiCaprio Looks Unfazed As He Enjoys the Long Beach ePrix After Indonesia Threatens to Ban Him for Environmental Crusades,” Daily Mail, April 3, 2016, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-3521666/Leonardo-DiCaprio-looks-unfazed-enjoys-Long-Beach-ePrix-Indonesia-threatens-ban-environmental-crusades.html.
appointed chairman of the Formula E Sustainability Committee “Leonardo DiCaprio to Chair Formula E Sustainability Committee,” Formula E website, October 22, 2015, http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2015/october/leonardo-dicaprio-to-chair-formula-e-sustainability-committee.aspx.
described as like Cars.com, Autotrader, and Consumer Reports rolled into one “BitAuto: A Chinese Canary in an Online Ad Coal Mine,” by Sarah Lacy, TechCrunch, May 19, 2009, https://techcrunch.com/2009/05/19/bitauto-a-chinese-canary-in-an-online-ad-coal-mine/.
valuation of about $2 billion “China’s Bitauto Raises $300M, with Baidu, JD.com and Tencent Each Chipping in $50M,” TechCrunch, https://techcrunch.com/2016/06/06/chinas-bitauto-raises-300m-with-baidu-jd-com-and-tencent-each-chipping-in-50m/.
“Fiat Click” “Fiat Click,” Magma Group website, accessed December 9, 2016, http://magmagroup.co/insight/case-studies/fiat-click/.
world’s largest passenger-car market “China Passes U.S. as World’s Top Car Market,” Wall Street Journal, January 12, 2010, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748703652104574651833126548364.
Chinese government was encouraging the development of “new energy” vehicles “China Gives Fresh Support for New-Energy Cars,” China Daily, September 30, 2015, http://europe.chinadaily.com.cn/business/2015-09/30/content_22023469.htm.
“Martin is a true warrior…” “NextEV FE Chief Martin Leach Dies After Battle With Cancer,” NBC Sports, November 1, 2016, http://motorsports.nbcsports.com/2016/11/01/nextev-fe-chief-martin-leach-dies-after-battle-with-cancer/.
Padmasree Warrior, former chief technology and strategy officer at Cisco “Ex-Cisco Executive Padmasree Warrior Joins Electric-Car Startup,” Wall Street Journal, December 16, 2015, http://www.wsj.com/ar\ticles/ex-cisco-executive-padmasree-warrior-joins-electric-car-startup-1450242065.
Nio would develop affordable electric cars for China Ibid.
The Nio Eve “Nio Eve concept debuts at SXSW, Packed with AI and Driverless Tech,” Road Show, March 13, 2017, https://www.cnet.com/roadshow/news/nio-eve-concept-debuts-at-sxsw-promises-production-version-by-2020/.
signed an agreement with the Nanjing Municipal Government “NextEV Will Build a $500 Million Factory to Manufacture Electric Vehicle Motors in China,” Electrek, May 5, 2016, https://electrek.co/2016/05/05/nextev-electric-vehicle-factory-china/.
opened an office in San Jose “Electric Car Startup NextEV Kicks Off Its Silicon Valley Office,” Fortune, October 13, 2016, http://fortune.com/2016/10/13/nextev-valley-grand-opening/.
filings with the state’s economic development agency “NextEV, China-Backed Electric Car Co., Applies for Tax Credit in California,” Wall Street Journal, June 7, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/nextev-china-backed-electric-car-co-applies-for-tax-credit-in-california-1465326359.
million- dollar 1,360-horsepower “NextEV to Unveil a £1-Million, 1,360-hp Electric Supercar This Year,” The Drive, May 19, 2016, http://www.thedrive.com/news/3561/nextev-to-unveil-a-ps1-million-1360-hp-electric-supercar-this-year.
Baidu announced that it too was investing in Nio “Baidu Leads Investment into Green Car Start-Up NextEV,” US News, March 17, 2017, https://www.usnews.com/news/technology/articles/2017-03-17/baidu-leads-investment-into-green-car-start-up-nextev.
“Talking big is pointless” “China Electric Car Startup Seeks $1 Billion in Tesla Challenge,” Bloomberg, September 16, 2015, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-09-16/china-electric-car-startup-seeks-1-billion-in-tesla-challenge.
California is the biggest auto market in the US “The Future of the Automobile is Being Reshaped in California,” Los Angeles Times, November 18, 2015, http://www.latimes.com/business/autos/laautoshow/la-fi-hy-california-auto-industry-20151118-story.html.
Toyota Prius was the top-selling car Toyota Prius Best Selling Car in California,” CNN Money, October 23, 2012, http://money.cnn.com/2012/10/23/autos/toyota-prius-sales-california/; “Toyota’s Prius Keeps Top California Sales Rank, Tesla Gains,” Bloomberg, February 14, 2014, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-02-13/toyota-prius-keeps-top-california-sales-rank-as-tesla-moves-up.
surpassed by the Honda Civic and Accord “Honda Leads California New-Car Sales for 2015,” Los Angeles Times, February 17, 2016, http://www.latimes.com/business/autos/la-fi-hy-california-car-sales-20160217-story.html.
Tesla’s biggest market in the United States “Tesla is Still Growing In Its Biggest Market, Deliveries Increased by 57% in California in 2015,” Electrek, February 2, 2016, https://electrek.co/2016/02/02/tesla-deliveries-california-2015/.
Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Sacramento “EV1 – General Motors First Production Electric Car 1996 to 2003,” Electric and Hybrid Cars, accessed December 9, 2016, http://electricandhybridcars.com/index.php/pages/EV1.html.
the state enacted a rule that required 10 percent of vehicles for sale in California to be zero-emission vehicles “What is ZEV?”, Union of Concerned Scientists website, accessed December 9, 2016, http://www.ucsusa.org/clean-vehicles/california-and-western-states/what-is-zev#.V3SbvZMrLIE.
(CARB) later introduced credits for “partial zero emission” vehicles Ibid.
CARB adjusted its targets “California’s ‘Clean Car’ Rules: A Historical Perspective,” Climate Watch, January 27, 2012, http://blogs.kqed.org/climatewatch/2012/01/27/californias-clean-car-rules-a-historical-perspective/.
Nine other states “What is ZEV?”, Union of Concerned Scientists website, accessed December 9, 2016, http://www.ucsusa.org/clean-vehicles/california-and-western-states/what-is-zev#.V3SbvZMrLIE.
these markets accounted for 28 percent of new vehicle registrations “ZEV Mandates Get Harder to Ignore,” Automotive News, June 27, 2016, http://www.autonews.com/article/20160627/OEM11/306279987/zev-mandates-get-harder-to-ignore.
“Every car in the world is much cleaner-burning than cars before California’s regulations were put in place…” “California’s ‘Clean Car’ Rules: A Historical Perspective,” Climate Watch, January 27, 2012, http://blogs.kqed.org/climatewatch/2012/01/27/californias-clean-car-rules-a-historical-perspective/.
“We support a strong and comprehensive national policy…” “ZEV Mandates Get Harder to Ignore,” Automotive News, June 27, 2016, http://www.autonews.com/article/20160627/OEM11/306279987/zev-mandates-get-harder-to-ignore.
Steve Jobs walked onstage to applause at a meeting of Apple executives and managers “Steve Jobs Unveils the Think Different Campaign (19970,” EverySteveJobsVideo YouTube channel, March 17, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4HsGAc0_Y5c.
the company had just 4 percent of the personal computer market and was losing more than $1 billion a year “Steve Jobs: The Return, 1997–2011,” by Brad Stone, Businessweek, October 6, 2011, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2011-10-06/steve-jobs-the-return-1997-2011.
Richard Dreyfuss “Steve Jobs Thought the ‘Think Different’ Ad That Went Viral After His Death Was ‘Horrible’,” Business Insider, May 23, 2014, http://www.businessinsider.com/steve-jobs-hated-apple-think-different-ad-2014-5.
The ad “Apple Think Different Ad (1997),” EveryAppleAd YouTube channel, October 18, 2012, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nmwXdGm89Tk.
$3 billion to $700 billion “Apple: The First $700 Billion Company,” Fortune, February 10, 2015, http://fortune.com/2015/02/10/apple-the-first-700-billion-company/.
“I don’t want to live in a world where someone else is making the world a better place…” “Silicon Valley Keeps Missing Golden Opportunities for Tech World Satire,” Slate, April 13, 2015, http://www.slate.com/blogs/browbeat/2015/04/13/silicon_valley_s_missed_tech_satire_opportunities.html.
“make a little dent in the universe” “Playboy Interview: Steven Jobs,” Playboy, February 1985, available at http://allaboutstevejobs.com/sayings/stevejobsinterviews/playboy85.php.
“Remembering that you are going to die…” “‘You’ve Got to Find What You Love,’ Jobs Says,” Stanford University news website, June 14, 2005, http://news.stanford.edu/2005/06/14/jobs-061505/.
2012 Harvard Business School study “The Venture Capital Secret: 3 Out of 4 Start-Ups Fail,” Wall Street Journal, September 20, 2012, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10000872396390443720204578004980476429190.
“If things are not failing, you are not innovating enough” “Elon Musk on How to Innovate,” Inc, July 14, 2015, http://www.inc.com/john-brandon/elon-musk-on-how-to-innovate-20-quotes.html.
sell his mapping startup Zip2 to Compaq “Compaq Buys Zip2 to Enhance Altavista,” New York Times, February 17, 1999, http://www.nytimes.com/1999/02/17/business/compaq-buys-zip2-to-enhance-altavista.html.
Taken over a 160,000-square-foot former Staples distribution center “Prologis Leases 160,000 SF to Futuris Automotive in Newark,” Colliers International press release, May 9, 2014, http://news.theregistrysf.com/prologis-leases-160000-sf-futuris-automotive-newark/; “Tesla Motors Spawns an Automotive Ecosystem,” San Jose Mercury News, September 13, 2014, http://www.mercurynews.com/2014/09/13/2014-tesla-motors-spawns-an-automotive-ecosystem/.
decided in 2015 to manufacture its seats in-house “Tesla Brings Seat-Making In-House to Secure a Steady Supply,” Bloomberg, November 3, 2015, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-11-03/tesla-rises-after-narrowing-vehicle-delivery-forecast-for-2015.
signed a five-year lease for the warehouse space “The Tesla Effect: Toyota Subsidiary Leases New Fremont Warehouse Space,” Silicon Valley Business Journal, June 23, 2014, http://www.bizjournals.com/sanjose/news/2014/06/23/the-tesla-effect-toyota-subsidiary-leases-new.html.
Fremont Dragstrip “Flashback Friday: California’s Fremont Dragstrip,” Dragzine, April 1, 2011, http://www.dragzine.com/news/flashback-friday-californias-fremont-dragstrip/.
spent several million dollars adding production capacity “Tesla’s Orbit: Manufacturers Cluster Around Elon Musk’s Car Company,” Silicon Valley Business Journal, August 1, 2014, http://www.bizjournals.com/sanjose/print-edition/2014/08/01/tesla-parts-makers-manufacturers-cluster-in.html.
lunch at a packed Thai restaurant downtown https://www.yelp.com/biz/sala-thai-fremont-2.
Warm Springs Innovation District “Fremont Approves New ‘Innovation District’ Plan Around BART Station, Tesla Motors,” Silicon Valley Business Journal, July 23, 2014, http://www.bizjournals.com/sanjose/news/2014/07/23/fremont-approves-new-innovation-district-plan.html.
taking close to five thousand jobs with it “NUMMI Workers Rally in Fremont to Save Jobs,” ABC 13 News, February 12, 2010, http://abc13.com/archive/7273820/.
the mecca of software is Silicon Valley “The Future of the Automobile is Being Reshaped in California,” Los Angeles Times, November 18, 2015, http://www.latimes.com/business/autos/laautoshow/la-fi-hy-california-auto-industry-20151118-story.html.
several million self-driving car test miles Google Self-Driving Car Project website, https://www.google.com/selfdrivingcar/.
created a new business division, Waymo “A First Look at our Waymo Fully Self-Driving Chrysler Pacific Hybrid Minivans,” Medium.com, by John Krafcik, December 18, 2016, https://medium.com/waymo/a-first-look-at-our-waymo-fully-self-driving-chrysler-pacifica-hybrid-minivans-5677e5e67750.
GM acquired for $1 billion “GM Buying Self-Driving Tech Startup for More Than $1 Billion,” Fortune, March 11, 2016, http://fortune.com/2016/03/11/gm-buying-self-driving-tech-startup-for-more-than-1-billion/.
same vein as Google’s Android “George Hotz Wants Comma AI to Be the Android of Autonomous Driving,” Engadget, January 7, 2017, https://www.engadget.com/2017/01/07/george-hotz-wants-comma-ai-to-be-the-android-of-autonomous-drivi/.
Baidu, China’s leading Internet search company “Baidu Joins Race to Build Autonomous Cars,” Wall Street Journal, December 9, 2015, http://www.wsj.com/articles/baidu-joins-race-to-build-autonomous-cars-1449714601.
Didi Chuxing, the Chinese ride-sharing company “Apple-Backed Uber Rival Didi Chuxing Opens R&D Center in Silicon Valley,” CNBC, March 8, 2017, http://www.cnbc.com/2017/03/08/uber-rival-didi-chuxing-launches-research-lab-in-silicon-valley.html.
PayPal Mafia “The PayPal Mafia,” Fortune, November 13, 2007, http://fortune.com/2007/11/13/paypal-mafia/.
Cruise recruited Andrew Gray “Cruise Raises $12.5M From Spark, YC’s Sam Altman for Self-Driving Cars; Poaches Tesla’s Lead on Autopilot,” TechCrunch, September 18, 2015, https://techcrunch.com/2015/09/18/cruise-2/.
Comma.ai snared former Tesla senior systems engineer Riccardo Biasini “George Hotz’s Self-Driving Car Startup Comma.ai Poaches Senior Tesla Engineer,” Forbes, April 13, 2016, http://www.forbes.com/sites/aarontilley/2016/04/13/hacker-george-hotzs-self-driving-car-startup-comma-ai-poaches-senior-tesla-engineer/#2ba45fdf567e.
Byton has nabbed a handful of former Tesla highfliers “Tesla Execs Join BMW’s Former Electric Vehicle Leadership at New Chinese Startup,” Electrek, May 24, 2016, https://electrek.co/2016/05/24/tesla-exec-bmw-electric-vehicle-future-mobility/.
“They have hired people we’ve fired” “Elon Musk Says Apple Hires the People That Tesla Fires,” The Verge, October 8, 2015, http://www.theverge.com/2015/10/8/9484379/elon-musk-blasts-apple-interview.
Apple employee allegedly emailed Business Insider “Apple Employee: We’re Working On Something That Will ‘Give Tesla a Run For Its Money’,” Business Insider, February 9, 2015, http://www.businessinsider.com/apple-employee-well-give-tesla-a-run-for-its-money-2015-12.
“We always jokingly call Apple the ‘Tesla Graveyard’” “Elon Musk Says Apple Hires the People That Tesla Fires,” The Verge, October 8, 2015, http://www.theverge.com/2015/10/8/9484379/elon-musk-blasts-apple-interview.
according to former Apple vice president Tony Fadell “Steve Jobs Considered Building an Apple Car in 2008,” Bloomberg, November 4, 2015, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-11-04/steve-jobs-considered-building-an-apple-car-in-2008.
(and which he left in 2016) “Altering the Deal: Why Tony Fadell Left Nest – and Alphabet,” The Verge, June 7, 2016, http://www.theverge.com/2016/6/7/11874670/nest-founder-tony-fadell-leaving-google-alphabet.
“A car has batteries; it has a computer…” “Steve Jobs Considered Building an Apple Car in 2008,” Bloomberg, November 4, 2015, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-11-04/steve-jobs-considered-building-an-apple-car-in-2008.
Apple had even considered building a car before it released the iPhone Ibid.
reports emerged that the company was poaching people “Apple Gears Up to Challenge Tesla in Electric Cars,” Wall Street Journal, February 13, 2015, http://www.wsj.com/articles/apples-titan-car-project-to-challenge-tesla-1423868072.
Chris Porritt “Apple Hires Former Tesla VP of Vehicle Engineering Chris Porritt for ‘Special [Car] Project’,” Electrek, April 19, 2016, https://electrek.co/2016/04/19/exclusive-apple-tesla-vp-chris-porritt-car-project/.
neighbors of a fenced-off Apple-occupied facility reported mysterious noises “Apple Silent on Mysterious Noises From Sunnyvale Complex,” San Jose Mercury News, February 24, 2016, http://www.mercurynews.com/2016/02/24/apple-silent-on-mysterious-noises-from-sunnyvale-complex/.
BMW and Daimler had both broken off talks with Apple “Fighting Over the Driver’s Seat,” Handelsblatt, April 21, 2016, https://global.handelsblatt.com/companies-markets/fighting-over-the-drivers-seat-500528.
Apple had been meeting with charging station companies “Apple Explores Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles,” Reuters, May 25, 2016, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-apple-charging-idUSKCN0YG262.
Apple appeared to have scaled back its electric car ambitions “How Apple Scaled Back Its Titanic Plan to Take on Detroit,” Bloomberg, October 17, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-10-17/how-apple-scaled-back-its-titanic-plan-to-take-on-detroit.
Bob Mansfield, an Apple veteran who had overseen the iPad, was appointed Ibid.
Hong Kong-born Tse had studied engineering “Wyse Technology, Inc. History,” Funding Universe, accessed December 8, 2016, http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/wyse-technology-inc-history/.
Atieva’s plan was to start by focusing on the power train My reporting.
raised about $40 million My reporting.
Derek Jenkins “Tesla Owners, Will Lucid Make Your Next Electric Car?”, Car and Driver, October 27, 2016, http://blog.caranddriver.com/tesla-owners-will-lucid-make-your-next-electric-car/.
BAIC wanted Atieva to build a car only for China My reporting.
“It’s being run like an old-school Hong Kong company…” “Battle of the Electric Car Startups: Will Faraday Future Merge With Atieva?”, The Guardian, April 20, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/apr/20/faraday-futures-owner-rival-electric-car-startup-atieva-jia-yueting.
it sold its stake in a public auction My reporting.
planned to start selling a premium electric sedan in 2018 “Electric Car Startups Fueled by Chinese Money Aim to Catch Tesla,” Reuters, June 14, 2016, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-autos-chinaev-idUSKCN0Z02IA.
later, 2.69 seconds “Start-up Lucid Motors Launches With 300-Mile Plus Premium Electric Sedan,” Road Show, October 20, 2016, https://www.cnet.com/roadshow/news/start-up-lucid-motors-launches-with-300-mile-plus-premium-electric-sedan/.
changed its name to Lucid Motors Ibid.
revealed a prototype of the car, called the Air “Lucid Motors Unveils its 400-Mile Range Luxury EV,” Engadget, December 14, 2016, https://www.engadget.com/2016/12/14/lucid-motors-unveils-its-400-mile-range-luxury-ev/.
zero to sixty miles per hour in 2.5 seconds Ibid.
the company planned to produce eight thousand to ten thousand cars “Lucid Motors Has a Secret Weapon Against Tesla: One of Its Former Engineers,” The Verge, November 23, 2016, http://www.theverge.com/2016/11/23/13723308/lucid-motors-vs-tesla-electric-luxury-car-concept-design.
the base version of the Air would start at $60,000 “Clear the Air – the $52,500 Lucid Air,” Lucid Motors blog, March 15, 2017, https://lucidmotors.com/stories/clear-air-52500-lucid-air.
“tend to personal matters in the UK” “Two Tesla Execs Leave Before 2012 Model S Laucnh, Stock Falls,” Green Car Reports, January 16, 2012, http://www.greencarreports.com/news/1071793_two-tesla-execs-leave-before-2012-model-s-launch-stock-falls.
Tesla’s stock dropped 19 percent Ibid.
former headquarters of Nissan USA “Mysterious Electric Car Start-Up in Gardena Has Ties to Chinese Multibillionaire,” Los Angeles Times, November 5, 2015, http://www.latimes.com/business/autos/la-fi-hy-faraday-auto-factory-plan-20151105-story.html.
moved its operations and 1,300 jobs to central Tennessee “Why Nissan is Leaving ‘Lalaland’ for Tennessee,” WardsAuto, March 22, 2006, http://wardsauto.com/news-analysis/why-nissan-leaving-lalaland-tennessee.
first big press announcement in July 2015 “New Electric Car Company Emerges: Faraday Future,” Motor Trend, July 15, 2015, http://www.motortrend.com/news/new-california-based-electric-car-company-emerges-faraday-future/.
“The first step is to establish that something is possible…” “Elon Musk: The New It Boy of Silicon Valley,” The Guardian, May 24, 2014, https://www.theguardian.com/theobserver/2014/may/25/elon-musk-entrepreneur-observer-profile.
Chapter 9: Build Your Dreams
the surprise main event “China’s LeEco Unveils All-Electric Concept Car with Sights Set on Industry Leaders,” Reuters, April 20, 2016, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-autos-china-leeco-idUSKCN0XH10D; full video of event: “LeEco’s LeSee Autonomous Electric Car Concept,” GadgetView YouTube channel, April 20, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WUcDoITdGZo.
karaoke and dance performances in sports stadiums “Alibaba IPO: Jack Ma Sings ‘Lion King’ Theme to Employees,” Bloomberg YouTube channel, September 8, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u-ogswmH00o.
“How do we get this car up here?” “LeEco’s LeSee Autonomous Electric Car Concept,” GadgetView YouTube channel, April 20, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WUcDoITdGZo.
controlled from backstage by remote control “Faraday Future Plagued by Lawsuits, Unpaid Bills Ahead of Electric Car Reveal,” BuzzFeed, December 15, 2016, https://www.buzzfeed.com/priya/turmoil-at-faraday-future?utm_term=.yy0BrKLdm#.wmOGW8EDz.
Shenzhen was an unremarkable fishing village “The Shenzhen Story, From Fishing Village to Thriving Metropolis,” South China Morning Post, November 18, 2008, http://www.scmp.com/article/660568/shenzhen-story-fishing-village-thriving-metropolis.
Migrants from other parts of China make up more than 80 percent “Migrant Workers in Shenzhen Bear Brunt of Landslide,” New York Times, December 23, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/24/world/asia/shenzhen-landslide-migrant-workers.html?_r=0.
(the largest, if you count hybrids) “China Electric Car Sales – BYD Tang Is #1 Again,” Clean Technica, July 14, 2016, https://cleantechnica.com/2016/06/14/china-electric-car-sales-byd-qin-1/.
BYD’s auto division has been based in Shenzhen since 2003 “BYD Milestones,” BYD website, accessed December 14, 2016, http://www.byd.com/aboutus/milestones.html.
F3 that retailed for about $10,000 “2014 BYD New F3 Unveiled in the Sultanate of Oman,” Drive Arabia, July 6, 2013, http://www.drivearabia.com/news/2013/07/06/byd-unveils-new-f3-in-the-sultanate-of-oman-uae/.
offices and factories in the US, Canada, Japan, Korea, India, Mexico, and Europe BYD contact page, BYD website, accessed December 14, 2016, http://www.byd.com/pv/contactus.html.
about $11 billion in revenue “BYD Net Profit Rockets by 551%,” China Daily, March 29, 2016, http://www.chinadailyasia.com/business/2016-03/29/content_15407477.html.
Wang Chuanfu, an engineer and chemist, cofounded BYD in 1995 “Wang Chuanfu: Building Electric Dreams in China,” Talk Asia, April 20, 2009, http://www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/asiapcf/04/20/byd.wangchuanfu/index.html.
Warren Buffet, through a Berkshire Hathaway subsidiary, buying 10 percent of the company for $230 million “Warren Buffet Invests in Chinese Company Developing ‘Green’ Cars,” CNBC, September 27, 2008, http://www.cnbc.com/id/26916857.
Wang was like a mix between Thomas Edison and Jack Welch “Charlie Munger’s BYD Conflicts,” by Felix Salmon, Reuters, April 5, 2011, http://blogs.reuters.com/felix-salmon/2011/04/05/charlie-mungers-byd-conflicts/.
difficult for non-residents to buy property “China’s Property Market Overheats in Tier 1 Cities, Stagnates in Lower Tiers,” CNBC, March 13, 2016, http://www.cnbc.com/2016/03/13/chinas-property-market-overheats-in-tier-1-cities-stagnates-in-lower-tiers.html.
eight in ten homebuyers Ibid.
Denza model “Denza EV: Daimler and BYD’s Electric Love Child,” Car and Driver, April 2014, http://www.caranddriver.com/news/denza-ev-photos-and-info-daimler-and-byds-electric-love-child-news.
55 percent of the country’s population “More Than 55 Percent of Chinese Now Live in Urban Areas,” AP, April 21, 2016, http://bigstory.ap.org/article/7238b70e4e7f48a0bdf8a5fb11fcb244/more-55-percent-chinese-now-live-urban-areas.
as much as $8,000 off the sticker price “China’s Round Two on Electric Cars: Will It Work?”, Forbes, April 18, 2014, http://www.forbes.com/sites/elizabetheconomy/2014/04/18/chinas-round-two-on-electric-cars-will-it-work/#1ea13a901b86.
license plate lottery “In China, the License Plates Can Cost More Than the Car,” Bloomberg, April 25, 2013, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2013-04-25/in-china-the-license-plates-can-cost-more-than-the-car.
success rate for obtaining a license for a conventional car was 0.15 percent “Beijingers Flock to Apply for New Energy Car License Plates,” ECNS Wire, February 26, 2016, http://www.ecns.cn/cns-wire/2016/02-26/200663.shtml.
$14,000 in license auctions “In China, the License Plates Can Cost More Than the Car,” Bloomberg, April 25, 2013, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2013-04-25/in-china-the-license-plates-can-cost-more-than-the-car.
waived the license plate lottery system for the owners of electric or hybrid vehicles “Tesla’s Sluggish China Sales May Get Boost as Beijing Expected to Bend Lottery Rules for Car Maker’s Plates Amid Electric Vehicle Push,” South China Morning Post, September 1, 2015, http://www.scmp.com/tech/china-tech/article/1854388/teslas-sluggish-china-sales-may-get-boost-beijing-expected-bend.
account for 20 percent of all vehicle fuel consumption in China “BYD Green City Solution,” BYD Lebanon website, accessed December 14, 2016, http://bydlebanon.com/innovations/gcs/overview.php.
BYD’s electric buses are already in operation in downtown Shenzhen “BYD Welcomes 2016 By Delivering the World’s Largest Electric Bus Fleet,” InsideEVs, January 6, 2016, http://insideevs.com/byd-welcomes-2016-by-delivering-the-worlds-largest-electric-bus-fleet/.
Washington and California “BYD Wins Huge Electric Bus Contract in Washington,” CleanTechnica, September 16, 2015, https://cleantechnica.com/2015/09/17/byd-wins-huge-electric-bus-contract-in-washington/; “California Transit Authority Goes 100% Electric With Order for 85 BYD Electric Buses,” Charged EVs, February 16, 2016, https://chargedevs.com/newswire/california-transit-authority-goes-100-electric-with-order-for-85-byd-electric-buses/.
electric taxis “BYD Launches First 100% Electric Taxi Fleet in Chile,” BYD press release, December 11, 2015, http://www.byd.com/news/news-316.html; “Uruguay Adds 50 BYD e6 Taxis to Fleet,” InsideEVs, August 28, 2015, http://insideevs.com/uruguay-adds-50-byd-e6-taxis-fleet/; “Electric Taxi Project in Hong Kong Goes Belly Up,” South China Morning Post, November 6, 2015, http://www.scmp.com/tech/innovation/article/1876321/electric-taxi-project-hong-kong-goes-belly-chinas-byd-brands-2-year; “Britain’s Largest Electric Taxi Deal Collapses,” The Telegraph, February 17, 2014, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/motoring/news/10636281/Britains-largest-electric-taxi-deal-collapses.html; “Rotterdam Chooses BYD e6 For Its New Electric Taxi Fleet,” BYD press release, December 11, 2013, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/motoring/news/10636281/Britains-largest-electric-taxi-deal-collapses.html.
California Climate Investments Program “California to Award $9M for 27 BYD Electric Trucks at Two Rail Yards,” Electric Cars Report, June 14, 2016, http://electriccarsreport.com/2016/06/california-award-9m-27-byd-electric-trucks-two-rail-yards/.
awarded a grant of $9.1 million to purchase 27 electric trucks made by BYD Ibid.
factory in Lancaster, California “A Look Under the Hood at the BYD Electric Bus Factory,” CleanTechnica, October 21, 2015, https://cleantechnica.com/2015/10/21/look-hood-byd-electric-bus-factory/.
the company had made branding its top priority “Buffet-Backed BYD Seeks Tesla-Like Buzz for Its Dynasty Cars,” Bloomberg, April 11, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-04-11/byd-seeks-to-channel-tesla-s-model-3-success-with-branding-focus.
raised $300 million in startup capital from his founding team My reporting.
WM Motor “Taking on Tesla: China’s WM Motor Sees Mass Market Electric Cars,” Reuters, August 11, 2016, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-autos-china-wmmotor-idUSKCN10M2M7.
CH-Auto “Tesla Challenger in China Plans to Debut $106,000 E-Roadster,” Bloomberg, June 5, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-06-05/tesla-challenger-in-china-promises-to-debut-106-000-e-roadster.
Changan Automobile www.globalchangan.com.
study by the China Automotive Technology and Research Center “China Has Too Many Mediocre Electric Carmakers, Researcher Says,” Bloomberg, July 11, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-07-11/china-has-too-many-mediocre-electric-carmakers-researcher-says.
such a move could wipe out 90 percent of the hopeful startups “95% of China’s Electric Vehicle Startups Face Wipeout,” Bloomberg, August 28, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-08-28/most-of-china-s-electric-car-startups-face-wipeout-by-new-rules.
helps to have cordial relationships with the regulators “China Is Still Risky for Foreign Businesses – But the Rewards Are Too Great to Ignore,” The Atlantic, July 31, 2013, http://www.theatlantic.com/china/archive/2013/07/china-is-still-risky-for-foreign-businesses-but-the-rewards-are-too-great-to-ignore/278238/; “The Mystery of China’s ‘Guanxi’,” BBC News, October 8, 2014, http://www.bbc.com/news/business-29538125.
breathing the air does as much damage to your lungs as smoking two packs of cigarettes a day “China Air Pollution Far Worse Than Thought,” CNBC, August 18, 2015, http://www.cnbc.com/2015/08/18/china-air-pollution-far-worse-than-thought-study.html.
Pollution protests have been mounting “Environmental Protests Expose Weakness in China’s Leadership,” Forbes, June 22, 2015, http://www.forbes.com/sites/forbesasia/2015/06/22/environmental-protests-expose-weakness-in-chinas-leadership/#7a5ebf572f09.
2011 Chinese National Patent Development Strategy “Chinese Firms Pour Money Into US R&D in Shift to Innovation,” Reuters, June 21, 2015, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-china-investment-insight-idUSKBN0P10KD20150621.
most recent five-year plan “China’s Green Revolution Goes Global,” by Nicholas Stern, Financial Times, July 8, 2016, http://blogs.ft.com/beyond-brics/2016/07/08/chinas-green-revolution-goes-global/.
five million new-energy cars on the road by 2020 “China Plans to End New-Energy Vehicles Subsidies After 2020,” Bloomberg, January 23, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-01-23/china-plans-to-end-new-energy-vehicles-subsidies-after-2020.
investing in charging infrastructure “China’s Government is Taking the Electric Car Market Really, Really Seriously,” Tech In Asia, February 24, 2016, https://www.techinasia.com/china-announces-measures-promote-electric-vehicle.
encouraging local governments to offer subsidies Ibid.
government officials have also expressed support for autonomous driving “China Sets Target for Self-Driving Cars to Encourage Development,” Bloomberg, October 25, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-10-26/china-looks-at-extending-auto-tax-cut-improving-ev-subsidies.
“…compact, attractive, and affordable smart cars for everybody” “Is China’s Li Xiang the Next Elon Musk?”, All China Tech, October 25, 2015, http://www.allchinatech.com/is-chinas-li-xiang-the-next-elon-musk/.
millions of dollars in annual revenue “PCPOP’s CEO, a Young Gun,” China Daily, October 24, 2006, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/business/2006-10/24/content_715578.htm.
initial public offering that raised $133 million “Shares of Telstra’s Chinese Auto Website Autohome Soar in Debut,” Reuters, December 11, 2013, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-autohome-ipo-idUSBRE9BA0PZ20131211.
one of the first nine people in China to own a Tesla Model S “Tesla Delivers First Vehicles in China,” Global Times, April 22, 2014, http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/856210.shtml.
“Its external design is that of a million-dollar car…” “Elon Musk is Confident About Tesla’s Future in China,” Everything Elon Musk YouTube channel, May 22, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QOhDflHzzU0.
more damning review of the Model S “Li Xiang, Model S Review,” 12gang.com, November 8, 2014, http://www.12gang.com/article_8655.html.
more than a dozen cities with a population of more than five million “An Introduction to China’s Largest Cities,” China Highlights website, accessed December 14, 2016, http://www.chinahighlights.com/travelguide/top-large-cities.htm.
Beta China Hamish McKenzie, Beta China: The Dawn of an Innovation Generation, (San Francisco, PandoMedia: 2013).
attempting to tell Americans about the WeChat phenomenon “This Mobile Social App is Way Bigger than Instagram, and it’s Made in China,” by Hamish McKenzie, PandoDaily, April 24, 2012, https://pando.com/2012/04/24/this-mobile-social-app-is-way-bigger-than-instagram-and-its-made-in-china/.
more than 800 million people “WeChat Reaches 800M Active Users, But it’s Close to the Bamboo Ceiling,” Tech In Asia, August 17, 2016, https://www.techinasia.com/wechat-and-the-bamboo-ceiling.
Evan Spiegel had pointed to Tencent as a “role model” “Chinese Internet Giant Tencent Goes From Snapchat ‘Role Model’ to Potential Investor,” TechCrunch, October 26, 2013, https://techcrunch.com/2013/10/26/chinese-internet-giant-tencent-rumored-to-be-considering-a-stake-in-snapchat/.
WeChat as an inspiration for Facebook Messenger “Facebook Messenger: Inside Zuckerberg’s App for Everything,” Wired, October 12, 2015, http://www.wired.co.uk/article/inside-facebook-messenger.
declared its intention to be the “WeChat of the West” “The Race to Become the WeChat of the West,” by Ted Livingston, Medium.com, November 27, 2014, https://medium.com/@tedlivingston/the-race-to-become-the-wechat-of-the-west-3fe52c8db946#.1lt8qdag8.
Tencent later invested in both Kik “Tencent Invests $50 Million in Messaging App Kik,” Wall Street Journal, August 18, 2015, http://www.wsj.com/articles/tencent-invests-50-million-in-messaging-app-kik-interactive-1439928079.
Snapchat “Tencent Was Already a Covert Investor in Snapchat’s Last Round,” TechCrunch, November 20, 2013, https://techcrunch.com/2013/11/20/tencent-snapchat/.
in 2015, it sold more than seventy million smartphones “Xiaomi Confirms It Sold ‘Over 70M’ Phones in 2015, Falling Short of 80M Target,” TechCrunch, January 14, 2016, https://techcrunch.com/2016/01/14/xiaomi-70-million-sales-in-2015/.
world’s most valuable startup “Xiaomi Becomes World’s Most Valuable Tech Startup,” Wall Street Journal, December 29, 2014, http://www.wsj.com/articles/xiaomi-becomes-worlds-most-valuable-tech-startup-1419843430.
Musical.ly found its way to the top of Apple’s US App Store “How One Small Design Tweak Rocketed This Startup to No. 1 in the App Store,” Business Insider, June 7, 2016, http://www.businessinsider.com/how-musically-became-so-successful-2016-6.
Baidu announced it had developed a self-driving car “Baidu’s Self-Driving Car Takes on Beijing Traffic,” MIT Technology Review, December 10, 2015, https://www.technologyreview.com/s/544391/baidus-self-driving-car-takes-on-beijing-traffic/.
The End of Copycat China Shaun Rein, The End of Copycat China: The Rise of Creativity, Innovation, and Individualism in Asia (Shanghai, Wiley: 2014).
“The impetus for the shift toward innovation of global significance” Ibid., xvii.
“Luxury items remained out of the reach of many by the turn of the millennium” Ibid., 111.
“While status remains integral to the [Chinese] culture” Ibid., 113.
C2C “The Evolution of Dragon’s Web: Copy-to-China, Reformation, Innovation and More,” TechNode, June 19, 2009, http://technode.com/2009/06/19/the-evolution-of-china-web/.
Alibaba, for instance, staved off a threat from eBay “The Remarkable Story of How Alibaba Defeated eBay in China,” Business Insider, April 14, 2014, http://www.businessinsider.com/how-alibaba-defeated-ebay-in-china-2014-4.
Alipay, prevented PayPal from getting any meaningful foothold in the country “Alipay Overtakes PayPal as the Largest Mobile Payments Platform in the World,” Business Insider, February 11, 2014, http://www.businessinsider.com/alipay-overtakes-paypal-as-the-largest-mobile-payments-platform-in-the-world-2014-2.
Zhongguancun was known as “China’s Silicon Valley” “China’s Silicon Valley Sparking 49 Technology Startups a Day,” Bloomberg, March 10, 2015, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-03-11/china-s-silicon-valley-sparking-49-technology-startups-a-day.
Many of Zhongguancun’s electronics stores had disappeared “Beijing’s Famous Zhongguancun to Get Rid of Electronics Shops,” The Nanfang, May 12, 2016, https://thenanfang.com/beijings-zhongguancun-changing-focus-high-tech-innovation-zone/.
coolest internet companies had moved east to Wangjing “Wangjing, the Next Silicon Valley?”, NewSeed, November 25, 2015, http://newseed.pedaily.cn/201511/201511251322531.shtml. [translated from Chinese]
hot app companies such as discount shopping giant Meituan and Ele.me “Beijing Wangjing, Fast Emerging Hotbed of Technology Start-Ups,” Korea IT Times, October 5, 2015, http://www.koreaittimes.com/story/54350/beijing-wangjing-fast-emerging-hotbed-technology-start-ups.
started Singulato Motors in October 2014 My reporting.
three out of four venture-backed startups in the US fail to return their investors’ money “The Venture Capital Secret: 3 Out of 4 Start-Ups Fail,” Wall Street Journal, September 20, 2012, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10000872396390443720204578004980476429190.
seven new companies start every minute in China “China’s Startup Boom: 7 New Firms Every Minute,” China.org.cn, June 9, 2015, http://www.china.org.cn/business/2015-06/09/content_35775291.htm.
grid operators in China were running far behind targets for charging-station installations “Grids Show Little Interest in E-Car Charging,” Caixin, May 26, 2016, http://m.english.caixin.com/m/2016-05-26/100948208.html.
Its total debt in 2015 was 250 percent of its gross domestic product “China’s Debt is 250% of GDP and ‘Could Be Fatal’, Says Government Expert,” The Guardian, June 16, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/business/2016/jun/16/chinas-debt-is-250-of-gdp-and-could-be-fatal-says-government-expert.
Tesla has said that the country could account for a third of its car sales in the long term “Tesla’s Global Business Will Boom – But Not Soon,” CNBC, November 18, 2015, http://www.cnbc.com/2015/11/18/teslas-success-depends-on-china.html.
increased 223 percent in 2015 “China Electric Car Sales Increased 223% In 2015,” CleanTechnica, March 8, 2016, https://cleantechnica.com/2016/03/08/china-electric-car-sales-increased-223-in-2015/.
Google “Google Struggles to Succeed in China Market,” San Jose Mercury News, April 24, 2011, http://www.mercurynews.com/2011/04/24/google-struggles-to-succeed-in-china-market/.
Yahoo “Google Isn’t the Only Silicon Valley Company Struggling in China,” Business Insider, January 19, 2010, http://www.businessinsider.com/google-isnt-the-only-silicon-valley-company-struggling-in-china-2010-1.
Groupon “Groupon: Still Getting Pawned in China,” June 11, 2011, https://techcrunch.com/2011/06/11/groupon-still-getting-it-in-the-ass-in-china/.
Uber was acquired by a competitor “Uber Sells China Operations to Didi Chuxing,” Wall Street Journal, August 1, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/china-s-didi-chuxing-to-acquire-rival-uber-s-chinese-operations-1470024403.
back seats in the first Model S delivered to China were bench-like “Musk Reboots Tesla’s China Strategy,” Bloomberg, March 29, 2015, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-03-29/musk-reboots-tesla-china-strategy-as-range-anxiety-crimps-sales.
introducing an “executive” rear seat option “Musk Reboots Tesla’s China Strategy,” Bloomberg, March 29, 2015, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-03-29/musk-reboots-tesla-china-strategy-as-range-anxiety-crimps-sales.
Chinese Model S drivers were unable to access the navigation system “In China, Tesla Model S is Missing One Basic Feature,” Autoblog, July 25, 2014, http://www.autoblog.com/2014/07/25/china-tesla-model-s-missing-nav-system/.
Cars got stuck in customs “Tesla Has Had Serious Problems Delivering Cars to China, and Customers Aren’t Happy,” QQ.com (via Business Insider), July 25, 2014, http://www.businessinsider.com/teslas-china-2014-7.
its cars didn’t qualify for some government subsidies “China to offer tax breaks on electric cars, limited to local brands,” Reuters, August 29, 2014, http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/08/29/us-china-autos-idUSKBN0GT0UX20140829.
“lurching start” “Lurching Start for Tesla in China,” New York Times, February 10, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/11/business/international/tesla-seeks-a-stronger-foothold-in-china.html.
Musk admitted that sales in China were “unexpectedly weak” “Tesla CEO Says China Sales Weak, Promises Model X by Third Quarter,” Reuters, January 13, 2015, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-autoshow-tesla-musk-idUSKBN0KM2FH20150113.
laid off as much as 30 percent of its local workforce “Tesla Runs Out of Charge in China,” Wall Street Journal, March 9, 2015, http://www.wsj.com/articles/tesla-cuts-jobs-in-china-1425870828.
Foxconn, came under fire for several worker suicides “IPhone Maker in China Is Under Fire After a Suicide,” New York Times, July 26, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/27/technology/companies/27apple.html.
Apple’s scalper problem was on another level “Beijing Apple Store Closes After ‘Scalpers’ Buy 30 iPhones at a Time,” Wired, October 1, 2010, http://www.wired.com/2010/10/beijing-apple-store-closes-after-scalpers-buy-30-iphones-at-a-time/.
iPhone was on sale, it wasn’t even compatible with China Mobile “Apple finally has access to China Mobile’s 700 million subscribers,” The Verge, December 22, 2013, http://www.theverge.com/2013/12/22/4710262/apple-iphone-china-mobile-deal.
having registered more iPhone sales than in the United States “Apple iPhone Sales in China Outsell the U.S. for First Time,” Bloomberg, April 27, 2015, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-04-27/apple-s-iphones-sales-in-china-outsell-the-u-s-for-first-time.
Tim Cook said China will be “Apple’s top market in the world.” “Apple CEO Tim Cook: China Will Be Our Top Worldwide Market, and Not Just for Sales,” GeekWire, October 27, 2015, http://www.geekwire.com/2015/apple-ceo-tim-cook-china-will-be-our-top-worldwide-market-and-not-just-for-sales/.
Apple’s commitment to the country shows in its products “Apple Wants China to Know Apple Loves China,” FastCompany, June 13, 2016, https://www.fastcompany.com/3060895/wwdc/apple-wants-china-to-know-apple-loves-china.
deal with China Unicom “Tesla Signs Deal With China Unicom on Charging Points,” Bloomberg, August 28, 2014, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-08-29/tesla-signs-deal-with-china-unicom-on-charging-points.
spending hundreds of millions of dollars “Tesla Delivers Electric Cars – And Apology – to Chinese Customers,” Financial Times, April 22, 2014, https://www.ft.com/content/5bc06eb8-ca03-11e3-8a31-00144feabdc0.
“hospital-grade” cabin air quality “Tesla’s ‘Bioweapon Defense Mode’ Sounds Like a Gimmick. It’s Actually Ingenious,” Slate, May 3, 2016, http://www.slate.com/blogs/future_tense/2016/05/03/tesla_model_x_s_bioweapon_defense_mode_is_really_about_china_air_pollution.html.
opened more stores in the country “Tesla Opens 17th Experience Store in China,” China Retail News, April 28, 2016, http://www.chinaretailnews.com/2016/04/28/8409-tesla-opens-17th-experience-store-in-china/.
signed a deal with the city of Shanghai to build and operate a factory “Tesla Strikes Deal With Shanghai to Build Factory in China,” Wall Street Journal, October 22, 2017, https://www.wsj.com/articles/tesla-strikes-deal-with-shanghai-to-build-factory-in-china-1508670181?mod=e2tw; http://fortune.com/2017/10/22/tesla-car-factory-shanghai-china/; Tesla Eyes Shanghai as Front-Runner for China Production,” Bloomberg, June 20, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-06-20/shanghai-said-to-be-front-runner-for-tesla-china-production-site; “Tesla Denies Report it is Planning to Open a Factory in Guangdong, China,” CNBC, April 10, 2017, http://www.cnbc.com/2017/04/10/tesla-denies-report-it-is-planning-a-factory-in-chinas-guangdong-province.html.
Robin Ren, announced that Tesla had completed its hundredth Supercharger station in the country “Tesla Charged Up for an Electric Performance in China,” South China Morning Post, June 12, 2016, http://www.scmp.com/business/china-business/article/1973723/tesla-charged-electric-performance-china.
partnered with local utility companies to install chargers at home and in parking lots Ibid.
1,400 fast-charging posts at shopping malls, office buildings, and hotels “Tesla to Build More Charging Posts Along China’s Eastern Shore,” Global Times, August 12, 2015, http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/936706.shtml.
tripled its sales in the country “Tesla China Sales Up 300%,” China Retail News, June 3, 2016, http://www.chinaretailnews.com/2016/06/03/8470-tesla-china-sales-up-300/.
China was the second largest market for reservations “China Second-Largest Market for Tesla’s Model 3 Car,” South China Morning Post, April 28, 2016, http://www.scmp.com/business/article/1939574/china-second-largest-market-teslas-model-3-car.
site of Tesla’s first store in China “Tesla Beijing Showroom Opens: Starting Price of a Model S in China is $146,000,” International Business Times, November 5, 2013, http://www.ibtimes.com/tesla-beijing-showroom-opens-starting-price-model-s-china-146000-1456110.
marked the occasion by calling the Cultural Revolution “a mistake...” “Learning the Lessons of ‘Cultural Revolution’,” China Daily, May 18, 2016, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2016-05/18/content_25335988.htm.
Chapter 10: A Supertanker’s Three- Point Turn
Simon Sproule, a spry British communications professional “Profile: Simon Sproule, Director of Marketing and Global Communications at Aston Martin Lagonda,” PR Week, March 19, 2015, http://www.prweek.com/article/1339211/profile-simon-sproule-director-marketing-global-communications-aston-martin-lagonda.
before leaving a week from the launch of the Model S P85D “Tesla VP Communications Simon Sproule to Leave for Aston Martin,” Wall Street Journal, October 6, 2014, http://www.wsj.com/articles/tesla-vp-communications-simon-sproule-to-leave-for-aston-martin-1412620109.
when Palmer was appointed CEO “Aston Martin Appoints Nissan Executive Palmer as New CEO,” Bloomberg, September 2, 2014, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-09-02/nissan-s-andy-palmer-is-said-to-be-new-ceo-at-aston-martin.
lost almost £72 million “Aston Martin LOSES £71.8 million. Sales Down – Job Losses Planned,” Cars UK, October 16, 2015, http://www.carsuk.net/aston-martin-loses-71-8-million-sales-down-job-losses-planned/.
cut 15 percent of its staff “Aston Martin to Scrap Almost 300 Jobs in Cost-Cutting Push,” Bloomberg, October 14, 2015, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-10-14/aston-martin-to-cut-about-15-of-workforce-unite-union-says.
founded by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford Aston Martin company history, Aston Martin website, accessed December 16, 2016, http://www.astonmartin.com/en/heritage/company-history.
bankruptcy in the 1970s “100 Years of Aston Martin History – Between Bankruptcy and One-77,” Car Addicts, January 12, 2014, http://www.car-addicts.com/feature/auto-stories-100-years-of-aston-martin-history-bankruptcy-and-one-77.
periods of stability under the ownership of Ford Ibid.
international consortium of investors “It’s Done: Aston Martin Sold for $925 Million,” Autoblog, March 12, 2007, http://www.autoblog.com/2007/03/12/its-done-aston-martin-sold-for-925-million/.
“the most expensive road car in British history” “Waiting List for £2.5m Aston Martin ‘Hypercar’ Filled Twice Over,” Financial Times, May 29, 2016, https://www.ft.com/content/5dcae052-258d-11e6-8b18-91555f2f4fde.
plans to build a £200 million factory in Wales “Aston Martin to Build New Factory in Wales for 2019’s DBX Crossover,” Car, December 14, 2016, http://www.carmagazine.co.uk/car-news/industry-news/aston-martin/aston-martin-to-build-new-factory-in-wales-for-dbx-crossover/.
signed an agreement with LeEco “Aston Martin and LeEco Partner to Co-Develop Electric Vehicle,” Aston Martin press release, February 17, 2016, https://www.astonmartin.com/en/live/news/2016/02/17/aston-martin-and-leeco-partner-to-co-develop-electric-vehicle.
homage to the scarab beetle Giles Chapman, Car Emblems: The Ultimate Guide to Automotive Logos Worldwide, (Chartwell Books, New Jersey: 2015), 32. Reference available at http://bit.ly/2hPomOq.
23 years at Nissan “Nissan Executive Andy Palmer Takes Driving Seat at Aston Martin,” The Guardian, September 2, 2014, https://www.theguardian.com/business/2014/sep/02/nissan-andy-palmer-aston-martin.
16-year-old apprentice “Monday Interview: Andy Palmer, Aston Martin CEO,” Financial Times, March 1, 2015, https://www.ft.com/content/43556486-bdce-11e4-9d09-00144feab7de.
dreamed of being CEO of a car company Ibid.
five miles from where he went to high school Ibid.
tried to convince Ghosn to buy a stake in Aston Martin “Departing Nissan Exec Wanted Carmaker to Buy Aston Stake,” The Irish Times, September 10, 2014, http://www.irishtimes.com/life-and-style/motors/departing-nissan-exec-wanted-carmaker-to-buy-aston-stake-1.1921766.
the absolute, number one leader in zero emissions” “Toyota, Nissan Green-Car Divide Widesn,” Automotive News, June 22, 2014, http://www.autonews.com/article/20140622/OEM05/306239984/toyota-nissan-green-car-divide-widens.
In 2016, it delivered about seventy-six thousand vehicles “Tesla Falls Short of Vehicle Delivery Target in 2016,” Financial Times, January 3, 2017, https://www.ft.com/content/7a7845c0-d201-11e6-9341-7393bb2e1b51.
falcon-wing door troubles “Tesla’s Model X Has Bigger Problems Than Faulty Falcon Doors,” Wired, April 26, 2016, https://www.wired.com/2016/04/teslas-model-x-bigger-problems-faulty-falcon-doors/.
recall for an issue with the third row of seats “Tesla Recalls Model X SUVs for Problem With Third-Row Seat,” Wall Street Journal, April 12, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/tesla-recalls-model-x-suvs-for-problem-with-third-row-seat-1460396857.
defects with the auto-retracting door handles “Consumer Reports’ Tesla Model S P85D Breaks – Before Testing Begins,” Consumer Reports, May 18, 2015, http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/news/2015/05/consumer-reports-tesla-model-s-p85d-breaks-before-testing-begins/index.htm.
Consumer Reports withdrew its “recommended” designation “Tesla Reliability Doesn’t Match Its High Performance,” Consumer Reports, October 20, 2015, http://www.consumerreports.org/cars-tesla-reliability-doesnt-match-its-high-performance/.
Tesla’s reliability improved to an “average” rating “Consumer Reports Ranks Tesla Near Bottom for Reliability,” CNBC, October 25, 2016, http://www.cnbc.com/2016/10/24/consumer-reports-ranks-tesla-near-bottom-for-reliability.html.
“continuous improvement” “Tesla Model S Performance Goes From Insane to Ludicrous,” Consumer Reports, July 17, 2015, http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/news/2015/07/tesla-model-s-performance-goes-from-insane-to-ludicrous/index.htm.
“Reflecting our philosophy of continuous improvement…” “Tesla Fourth Quarter & Full Year 2015 Update,” Tesla Shareholder Letter, February 10, 2016, http://bit.ly/2hsyrjg.
each produced about 10 million cars in 2015“World’s Largest Automaker 2015: Either Toyota, or Volkswagen,” Daily Kanban, May 28, 2015, http://dailykanban.com/2015/05/worlds-largest-automaker-2015-either-toyota-or-volkswagen/.
“There is nothing Tesla can do that we cannot also do” “What Fiat Chrysler Chief Sergio Marchionne Told Us Over Lunch,” September 2, 2016, http://www.carmagazine.co.uk/car-news/industry-news/alfa-romeo/what-fiat-chrysler-chief-sergio-marchionne-told-us-over-lunch/; “Fiat Chrysler Boss Still Doesn’t Think Electric Cars Are the Future,” Jalopnik, June 7, 2016, http://jalopnik.com/fiat-chrysler-boss-still-doesnt-think-electric-cars-are-1781176669.
he had asked customers not to buy the Fiat 500e “Fiat Chrysler CEO: Please Don’t Buy Fiat 500e Electric Car,” Reuters, May 21, 2014, http://www.reuters.com/article/chrsyelr-ceo-evs-idUSL1N0O71MS20140521.
“I will copy the formula…” “Fiat Chrysler Could Build Tesla Model 3 Rival if Business Case Makes Sense, Marchionne Says,” Automotive News Europe, April 15, 2016, http://europe.autonews.com/article/20160415/ANE/160419910/fiat-chrysler-could-build-tesla-model-3-rival-if-business-case-makes.
Daimler, called Tesla a “joke” “German Automakers Who Once Laughed Off Elon Musk Are Now Starting to Worry,” Los Angeles Times, April 19, 2016, http://www.latimes.com/business/autos/la-fi-hy-0419-tesla-germany-20160419-story.html.
“German carmakers have been in denial…” Ibid.
Dan Akerson established a team within the company to study Tesla “Akerson Demands GM Innovation to Blunt Tesla Threat,” Bloomberg, July 17, 2013, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2013-07-18/akerson-demands-gm-innovation-to-guard-against-musk-effect-cars.
Motor Trend’s 2011 Car of the Year “2011 Motor Trend Car of the Year: Chevrolet Volt,” Motor Trend, July 16, 2011, http://www.motortrend.com/news/2011-motor-trend-car-of-the-year-chevrolet-volt/.
unveiled a concept of the Chevy Bolt “GM Bolt Seeks to Rival Tesla,” Wall Street Journal, January 12, 2015, http://www.wsj.com/articles/gm-readies-electric-rival-to-tesla-1420859986?autologin=y.
“Detroit Strikes Back!” “How GM Beat Tesla to the First True Mass-Market Electric Car,” Wired, January 2016, https://www.wired.com/2016/01/gm-electric-car-chevy-bolt-mary-barra/.
Fletcher is a GM veteran “New Volt Raises Profile of Engineer Fletcher,” Automotive News, January 12, 2015, http://www.autonews.com/article/20150112/OEM02/301129954/new-volt-raises-profile-of-engineer-fletcher.
spent her childhood in small-town Sarahsville, Ohio “GM’s Bolt EV Team, Up Against Short Deadline, Delivers,” Detroit Free Press, March 12, 2016, http://www.freep.com/story/money/cars/general-motors/2016/03/12/gms-bolt-ev-team-up-against-short-deadline-delivers/81448772/.
master’s degree in engineering from Wayne State University “What Drives Her: Pam Fletcher, Chief Engineer Behind the New Chevy Volt,” She Buys Cars, January 19, 2015, http://shebuyscars.com/drives-pam-fletcher-chief-engineer-behind-new-chevy-volt/.
GM acquired the self-driving car startup Cruise “GM Buying Self-Driving Tech Startup for More Than $1 Billion,” Fortune, March 27, 2016, http://fortune.com/2016/03/11/gm-buying-self-driving-tech-startup-for-more-than-1-billion/.
invested about half that amount in the ride-sharing company Lyft “GM Invests $500 Million in Lyft, Sets Out Self-Driving Car Partnership,” Reuters, January 5, 2016, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-gm-lyft-investment-idUSKBN0UI1A820160105.
238 miles per charge “Chevy Bolt EV Range is 238 Miles: Prime Time For the Electric Car?”, Los Angeles Times, September 12, 2016, http://www.latimes.com/business/autos/la-fi-hy-bolt-ev-range-20160912-snap-story.html.
“How did GM create Tesla’s dream car first?” “How Did G.M. Create Tesla’s Dream Car First?”, by Farhad Manjoo, New York Times, September 14, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/15/technology/how-did-gm-create-teslas-dream-car-first.html?_r=1.
“We hope the big car companies do copy Tesla” “Musk: ‘We Hope the Big Car Companies Do Copy Tesla’,” by Mark Rogowsky, Forbes, February 5, 2014, http://www.forbes.com/sites/markrogowsky/2014/02/05/musk-we-hope-the-big-car-companies-do-copy-tesla/#708293f6508e.
former GM chairman Bob Lutz, have wondered “Bob Lutz Called 2017 Chevy Bolt EV a ‘Compliance Car’; Is It?,” Green Car Reports, April 19, 2016, http://www.greencarreports.com/news/1103482_bob-lutz-called-2017-chevy-bolt-ev-a-compliance-car-is-it.
Chevy sold just over twenty thousand Bolts “Chevy Bolt EV US sales hit new records – reaching over 20,000 units to date,” Electrek, December 1, 2017, https://electrek.co/2017/12/01/chevy-bolt-ev-us-sales-records/.
“important to our image, but they kind of live on the fringes…” “Carmakers Show Their Caution on Electric Cars at Los Angeles Auto Show,” Reuters, November 17, 2016, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-autoshow-trucks-idUSKBN13C28X.
GM expected to lose $8,000 to $9,000 on every Bolt “GM Ready to Lose $9K a Pop Chasing Electric Car Boom,” The Detroit News, November 30, 2016, http://www.detroitnews.com/story/business/autos/general-motors/2016/11/30/gm-zev/94660092/.
Tesla had about eight thousand Supercharger points and fifteen thousand fast-charging points “Tesla is Already Expanding its Supercharger Network Following the Model 3 Unveiling,” Electrek, April 18, 2016, https://electrek.co/2016/04/18/tesla-expanding-supercharger-network-model-3-unveil/.
2015 was bringing record car sales “Auto Industry Sets All-Time Sales Record in 2015,” The Detroit News, January 5, 2016, http://www.detroitnews.com/story/business/autos/2016/01/05/auto-sales/78295542/.
Just before 4 p.m. on September 23 “Volkswagen Emissions Scandal Live: VW Boss Steps Down Amid Claims Merkel Government Knew of Rigged Emissions Tests,” The Independent, September 23, 2015, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/volkswagen-emissions-scandal-live-affected-engines-also-used-in-skoda-seat-and-luxury-vw-models-10513634.html; “Volkswagen Scandal: CEO Martin Winterkorn Resigns,” The Telegraph, September 23, 2015, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/industry/11886153/Volkswagen-scandal-CEO-Martin-Winterkorn-resigns.html; “Volkswagen Chief Quits Over Emissions Scandal as Car Industry Faces Crisis,” The Guardian, September 23, 2015, https://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/sep/23/volkswagen-chief-martin-winterkorn-quits-emissions-scandal.
three grey-haired men in spectacles and suits stood with grim faces Ibid.
highest-paid executive in Europe “Richemont CEOS Are Top-Paid Europe Executives After VW Boss,” Bloomberg, July 3, 2015, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-07-03/richemont-ceos-are-top-paid-europe-executives-after-vw-boss.
US Environmental Protection Agency had ordered VW to recall 482,000 diesel cars “VW Is Said to Cheat on Diesel Emissions; US to Order Big Recall,” New York Times, September 18, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/19/business/volkswagen-is-ordered-to-recall-nearly-500000-vehicles-over-emissions-software.html.
admitted that it had fitted 11 million cars with programs Ibid.
lost a third of its value “Volkswagen Scandal Widens,” CNN Money, September 22, 2015, http://money.cnn.com/2015/09/22/news/vw-recall-diesel/.
discovered by the US-based International Council on Clean Transportation “How This Clean Air NGO Caught Volkswagen Cheating Emissions Tests,” Fortune, September 23, 2015, http://fortune.com/2015/09/23/volkswagen-carbon-emissions-scandal/.
$2 billion fund dedicated to the advancement and adoption of zero-emissions vehicles “Battle Over VW’s $2 Billion Fund for Electric-Car Charging: Sorting Out the Questions,” Green Car Reports, October 26, 2016, http://www.greencarreports.com/news/1106892_battle-over-vws-2-billion-fund-for-electric-car-charging-sorting-out-the-questions.
FBI Arrests Volkswagen Executive on Conspiracy Charge in Emissions Scandal New York Times, January 9, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/09/business/volkswagen-diesel-emissions-investigation-settlement.html.
Mercedes-Benz… “Four More Carmakers Join Diesel Emissions Row,” The Guardian, October 9, 2015, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/oct/09/mercedes-honda-mazda-mitsubishi-diesel-emissions-row; “The Facts Behind Every Major Automaker Emissions Cheating Scandal Since VW,” Road & Track, May 25, 2016, http://www.roadandtrack.com/new-cars/car-technology/a29293/vehicle-emissions-testing-scandal-cheating/.
in April 2016 admitted it had been improperly testing the fuel economy “Mitsubishi Motors’ Improper Mileage Tests Date Back to 1991,” Bloomberg, April 26, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-04-26/mitsubishi-motors-says-fuel-test-misconduct-dates-back-to-1991.
announced they would step down from their positions “Mitsubishi Motors President to Resign as Mileage Scandal Widens,” Bloomberg, May 18, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-05-18/mitsubishi-motors-president-resigns-in-wake-of-mileage-scandal.
suspicion extended to Volkswagen’s Audi vehicles “New Discovery Broadens VW Emissions-Cheating Crisis,” Wall Street Journal, November 6, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/volkswagen-probe-in-germany-extended-to-chairman-1478429066.
back at VW’s Wolfsburg headquarters for another press conference “Statements Press Conference #TOGETHERStrategie2015 Volkswagen Group,” Volkswagen Group YouTube channel, June 16, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L2GtD1nnhJs.
Toyota announced a strategic partnership with Uber “Uber and Toyota Confirm Strategic Investment and Auto Leasing Deal,” TechCrunch, May 24, 2016, https://techcrunch.com/2016/05/24/uber-and-toyota-confirm-strategic-deal/.
VW had announced that it would invest $300 million in the ride-booking app Gett “VW Invests $300M in Uber Rival Gett in New Ride-Sharing Partnership,” TechCrunch, May 24, 2016, https://techcrunch.com/2016/05/24/vw-invests-300m-in-uber-rival-gett-in-new-ride-sharing-partnership/.
rumors that VW planned to spend up to $11 billion on an advanced battery factory “VW Mulls e-Battery Factory of its Own,” DW.com, May 26, 2016, http://www.dw.com/en/vw-mulls-e-battery-factory-of-its-own/a-19285371.
In Wolfsburg, Müller vowed to foster a culture of innovation “Statements Press Conference #TOGETHERStrategie2015 Volkswagen Group,” Volkswagen Group YouTube channel, June 16, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L2GtD1nnhJs.
A satirical review published on the Tesla club of Sweden’s website “Test Drive of a Petrol Car,” Tesla Club Sweden website, April 22, 2015, http://teslaclubsweden.se/test-drive-of-a-petrol-car/.
“I assume that [Tesla] will fail…” “Tesla Will Fail,” Handelsblatt, May 27, 2015, http://www.handelsblatt.com/auto/test-technik/interview-mit-fritz-indra-tesla-wird-scheitern/11830774.html. [translated from German]
average efficiency of an internal combustion “Where the Energy Goes: Gasoline Vehicles,” FuelEconomy.gov, accessed December 16, 2106, https://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/atv.shtml.
it’s about 90 percent “Instant Torque and Blazing Speeds the Best Thing About Electric Cars,” CleanTechnica, September 16, 2013, https://cleantechnica.com/2013/09/16/instant-torque-and-blazing-speeds-the-best-thing-about-electric-cars/.
number one factor holding Tesla back from offering cheaper cars has been the energy cost per unit of its lithium-ion battery packs “Electric-Car Battery Costs: Tesla $190 Per kWh for Pack, GM $145 for Cells,” Green Car Reports, April 28, 2016, http://www.greencarreports.com/news/1103667_electric-car-battery-costs-tesla-190-per-kwh-for-pack-gm-145-for-cells.
accounts for less than a quarter of the cost of each vehicle “How Tesla is Driving Electric Car Innovation,” MIT Technology Review, August 7, 2013, https://www.technologyreview.com/s/516961/how-tesla-is-driving-electric-car-innovation/.
uncertainty because of fluctuating costs of battery materials “Tesla: Prices for Key Inputs Raise a Broader Question,” by Taron Ganjalyan, Seeking Alpha, November 18, 2016, http://seekingalpha.com/article/4024747-tesla-getting-may-ideal#alt1.
company claims it has been able to reduce pack costs by a third “Tesla Opens Gigafactory to Expand Battery Production, Sales,” Bloomberg, July 26, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-07-26/tesla-opens-gigafactory-to-expand-battery-production-sales.
electric cars will reach cost parity with equivalent gasoline cars when battery cell prices hit $100 per kWh “Tesla’s Gigafactory May Hit $100/kWh Holy Grail of EV Batteries, Report Predicts,” CleanTechnica, September 5, 2014, https://cleantechnica.com/2014/09/05/teslas-gigafactory-may-hit-100-per-kilowatt-hour-holy-grail-ev-batteries-report-predicts/.
component costs of a Tesla battery pack add about 20 percent “How Soon Can Tesla Get Battery Cell Costs Below $100 per Kilowatt-Hour?,” Greentech Media, March 15, 2016, https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/How-Soon-Can-Tesla-Get-Battery-Cell-Cost-Below-100-per-Kilowatt-Hour.
Model 3 would be offered with a battery pack of lower than 60 kWh “Tesla Confirms Base Model 3 Will have Less Than 60 kWh Battery Pack Option, Cost is Below $190/kWh and Falling,” Electrek, April 26, 2016, https://electrek.co/2016/04/26/tesla-model-3-battery-pack-cost-kwh/.
the cost of laptop battery cells fell from $2,000 to $250 per kWh “The End of the Oil Age,” Deutsche Bank white paper, December 22, 2010, http://bioage.typepad.com/files/1223fm-05.pdf.
calculations done by Tony Seba Tony Seba, Clean Disruption of Energy and Transportation: How Silicon Valely Will Make Oil, Nuclear, Natural Gas, Coal, Electric Utilities and Conventional Cars Obsolete by 2030 (Tony Seba, San Francisco: 2014), 122.
GM has predicted that its lithium-ion cell costs will hit $100 per kWh by 2021 “GM Says Li-ion Battery Cells Down to $145/kWh and Still Falling,” Hybrid Cars, October 2, 2015, http://www.hybridcars.com/gm-ev-battery-cells-down-to-145kwh-and-still-falling/.
in 2017, the price of a lithium- ion battery pack was 24 percent lower than the year before “The Latest Bull Case for Electric Cars: the Cheapest Batteries Ever,” Bloomberg, December 5, 2017, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-12-05/latest-bull-case-for-electric-cars-the-cheapest-batteries-ever.
“…, it will make no financial sense to purchase a new gasoline car in any market” Tony Seba, Clean Disruption of Energy and Transportation: How Silicon Valley Will Make Oil, Nuclear, Natural Gas, Coal, Electric Utilities and Conventional Cars Obsolete by 2030 (Tony Seba, San Francisco: 2014), 127.
zero-to-sixty acceleration in 2.28 seconds “2017 Tesla Model S P100D First Test: A New Record – 0–60 MPH in 2.28 Seconds!” Motor Trend, February 7, 2017, http://www.motortrend.com/cars/tesla/model-s/2017/2017-tesla-model-s-p100d-first-test-review/.
A lot of people think I’m a fan of disruption, but I’m not…” “Elon Musk and JB Straubel Share Their Vision on Energy (2015.6.8),” Every Elon Musk Video YouTube channel, June 11, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5nMcJxA3lto.
The Innovator’s Dilemma Clayton M. Christensen, The Innovator’s Dilemma: The Revolutionary Book That Will Change the Way You Do Business (New York, HarperBusiness: 2011).
lauded by The Economist “Aiming High,” The Economist, June 30, 2011, http://www.economist.com/node/18894875.
TechCrunch Disrupt https://techcrunch.com/event-type/disrupt/.
Mark Fields, a Harvard business grad and Clayton Christensen follower “How Ford Helped Mark Fields Win,” Bloomberg, May 2, 2014, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-05-02/how-ford-groomed-mark-fields-to-be-ceo; “Things to Know About Mark Fields, Ford’s Heir Apparent,” Wall Street Journal, April 21, 2014, http://blogs.wsj.com/corporate-intelligence/2014/04/21/things-to-know-about-mark-fields-fords-heir-apparent/.
53 when he was appointed to succeed outgoing CEO Alan Mulally “Things to Know About Mark Fields, Ford’s Heir Apparent,” Wall Street Journal, April 21, 2014, http://blogs.wsj.com/corporate-intelligence/2014/04/21/things-to-know-about-mark-fields-fords-heir-apparent/.
“a sense of crisis, but not panic” “‘Way Forward’ Requires Culture Shift at Ford,” Wall Street Journal, January 23, 2006, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB113797951796853248.
“change or die” Ibid.
Fields gave an interview to the tech news site The Verge “Meet the New Ford, a Silicon Valley Software Company,” The Verge, April 7, 2016, http://www.theverge.com/2016/4/7/11333288/ford-ceo-mark-fields-interview-electric-self-driving-car-software.
“…large car companies or truck companies are not focused on software…” “Tesla Co-Founder JB Straubel Hints at Forthcoming Autonomous Driving and Battery Breakthroughs,” EV Annex, May 27, 2016, https://evannex.com/blogs/news/117920965-tesla-co-founder-jb-straubel-hints-at-forthcoming-autonomous-driving-and-battery-breakthroughs-video.
said Tesla didn’t fit the disruptive innovation model “What is Disruptive Innovation?,” Harvard Business Review, December 2015, https://hbr.org/2015/12/what-is-disruptive-innovation.
Christensen predicted the smartphone wouldn’t succeed “Clayton Christensen’s Innovation Brain,” Bloomberg, June 18, 2007, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2007-06-15/clayton-christensens-innovation-brainbusinessweek-business-news-stock-market-and-financial-advice.
“We don’t sit around thinking how can we disrupt something else today” “Tesla Motors: Disruption Is Never Our Goal,” Forrester YouTube channel, November 5, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-0kOt_tHae4.
Elon Musk is standing on a black-floored stage in a black suit “Tesla Unveils Model 3,” Tesla YouTube channel, March 31, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q4VGQPk2Dl8.
started accepting reservations for the Model 3 at its stores that morning “Elon Musk: Reservations for $35,000 Model 3 Begin March 31st,” The Verge, February 11, 2016, http://www.theverge.com/2016/2/11/10965014/tesla-model-3-price-on-sale.
Short Hills, New Jersey “Tesla Buyers Wait in Lines Hundreds Deep to Place $1,000 Reservations on a Model 3,” Bloomberg, March 31, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-03-31/tesla-buyers-wait-in-lines-hundreds-deep-to-place-1-000-reservations-on-a-model-3.
340 people in Austin “Tesla Buyers Wait in Lines Hundreds Deep to Place $1,000 Reservations on a Model 3,” Bloomberg, March 31, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-03-31/tesla-buyers-wait-in-lines-hundreds-deep-to-place-1-000-reservations-on-a-model-3.
300 people in line at Tesla’s Palo Alto store “Tesla Model 3: Impressive Lines Forming at Tesla Stores Around the Globe,” InsideEVs, March 31, 2016, http://insideevs.com/tesla-model-3-impressive-lines-forming-at-tesla-stores-around-the-globe/.
“I’m very much a traditional car enthusiast” “Meet the People Waiting in Line For a Tesla Model 3,” Jalopnik, March 31, 2016, http://jalopnik.com/meet-the-people-waiting-in-line-for-a-tesla-model-3-1768283513.
Musk would tell a conference in Norway “Tesla CEO Musk: Almost 400,000 Orders Received For New Model 3,” Reuters, April 21, 2016, http://www.cnbc.com/2016/04/21/tesla-ceo-musk-almost-400000-orders-received-for-new-model-3.html.
“The Model 3 was a “real wake-up call” for the auto industry” “Elon Musk on Tesla Hitting 400,000 Reservations: ‘the Model 3 Was Probably the Real Wake Up Call For the Rest of the Industry’,” Electrek, April 29, 2016, http://electrek.co/2016/04/29/elon-musk-tesla-model-3-reservation-wake-up-call/.
Volvo has announced plans to sell only electric or hybrid cars from 2019 onward “Volvo Aims to Sell 1 Million Electrified Cars By 2025,” CleanTechnica, May 2, 2016, https://cleantechnica.com/2016/05/02/volvo-aims-sell-1-million-electrified-car-2025-twice-tesla-model-3-reservation-backlog/.
BMW will produce an electric version of its bestselling 3 Series . . . sometime around 2020 “2018 BMW 3 Series Spied Testing Again,” November 11, 2016, http://www.autoexpress.co.uk/bmw/3-series/94014/2018-bmw-3-series-spied-testing-again.
the company “will systematically electrify all brands…” “BMW to Expand Electric-Vehicle Offerings,” Wall Street Journal, October 11, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/bmw-to-expand-electric-vehicle-offerings-1476228762.
Daimler shareholders raised concerns “Daimler Shareholders Worried Over Tesla and Electric Carmakers,” Financial Times, April 6, 2016, https://www.ft.com/content/32da3450-fc03-11e5-b5f5-070dca6d0a0d.
announcing the “EQ” electric vehicle sub-brand “Mercedes Announces New All-Electric Brand ‘EQ’,” Electrek, September 29, 2016, https://electrek.co/2016/09/29/mercedes-announces-new-all-electric-brand-eq-unveils-suv-with-250-miles-range-generation-eq/.
Daimler is spending $10.8 billion “Daimler Accelerates Electric Car Program,” Reuters, March 29, 2017, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-daimler-agm-idUSKBN1700N7.
Ford said it will invest $4.5 billion by 2020 “Ford Planning 13 Electrified Vehicles, Including a Hybrid F-150 and Mustang,” Chicago Tribune, January 6, 2017, http://www.chicagotribune.com/classified/automotive/fuelefficient/ct-ford-hybrid-f150-mustang-20170106-story.html.
the bestselling vehicle in the United States “Auto Sales Reach Six-Year High of 15.6 Million Vehicles Sold, Ford F-Series Takes the Lead,” New York Daily News, January 6, 2014, http://www.nydailynews.com/autos/auto-sales-reach-six-year-high-demand-peaked-article-1.1567645.
Even Toyota “Toyota Sets Its Sights on Long-Range Electric Cars,” Fortune, November 6, 2016, http://fortune.com/2016/11/06/toyota-long-range-electric-cars/.
joint venture with Mazda “Toyota and Mazda are making a new company to develop electric cars,” Venture, September 28, 2017, https://www.theverge.com/2017/9/28/16379394/mazda-toyota-new-electric-car-company.
VW has said it will invest nearly $12 billion with Chinese partners by 2025 “Volkswagen Plans $12 Billion Electric-Car Blitz in China,” Wall Street Journal, November 16, 2017, https://www.wsj.com/articles/volkswagen-plans-12-billion-electric-car-blitz-in-china-1510820168.
$14 billion in implied future sales “Can Tesla Build Enough Electric Cars?”, Scientific American, May 5, 2016, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/can-tesla-build-enough-electric-cars/.
“the biggest consumer product launch ever” Ibid.
Chapter 11: Electric Avenue
“Even if we were able to use up all of their battery factories…” “Musk: ‘Truly gargantuan battery factory’,” CNBC, August 22, 2013, http://video.cnbc.com/gallery/?video=3000193143.
robots in the Fremont factory are named after X-Men “Tesla Robots Get X-Men Names,” CleanTechnica, November 18, 2014, https://cleantechnica.com/2014/11/18/tesla-robots-get-x-men-names/.
On an earnings call three months later “Notes and transcript from Tesla’s Q3 2013 Earnings Call”, Electrek, November 6, 2013, http://electrek.co/2013/11/06/notes-and-transcript-from-teslas-q3-2013-earnings-call-a-giga-battery-factory-needs-to-be-built/.
“the next month or so” “Tesla Motors CEO Elon Musk Talks About Q4 Sales & Update on Future 2014,” CNBC (via Investary Group YouTube Channel), January 14, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CR1HEA_2erc.
first official announcement about the Gigafactory “Gigafactory,” Tesla Motors blog, February 2014, https://www.tesla.com/blog/gigafactory; slide deck: http://www.teslamotors.com/sites/default/files/blog_attachments/gigafactory.pdf.
built in partnership with Panasonic “Tesla Gigafactory Will Be Built With Panasonic as Main Partner,” Transport Evolved, July 31, 2014, https://transportevolved.com/2014/07/31/confirmed-tesla-gigafactory-will-built-panasonic-main-partner/.
Henry Ford’s invention, in 1913, of the moving assembly line “Moving Assembly Line at Ford,” History.com, accessed December 19, 2016, http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/moving-assembly-line-at-ford.
it took Ford workers more than 12 hours to put together the chassis for a Model T “The Ford Model T,” FordModelT.net, accessed December 19, 2016, http://www.fordmodelt.net/model-t-ford.htm.
it took them one hour and 33 minutes “Moving Assembly Line at Ford,” History.com, accessed December 19, 2016, http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/moving-assembly-line-at-ford.
production shot up from 170,000 Model Ts in 1910 to more than 300,000 Steven Parissien, The Life of the Automobile: The Complete History of the Motor Car (New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2013), 23; “The 1916 Ford Model T Automobiles,” American Automobiles, accessed May 16, 2017, http://www.american-automobiles.com/Ford/1916-Ford.html.
$850 in 1908 to $360 by 1916 “Moving Assembly Line at Ford,” History.com, accessed December 19, 2016, http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/moving-assembly-line-at-ford.
Rick Perry, then the governor of Texas, drove into California’s state capital “Texas Gov. Rick Perry tries to woo Tesla in Sacramento,” Los Angeles Times, June 10, 2014, http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-tesla-texas-perry-20140611-story.html.
“golden shovel” “State Senator Presents Tesla’s CEO With ‘Golden’ Shovel; Courting Auto Maker’s Multi-Billion Dollar Battery Factory,” CBS SF Bay Area, August 8, 2014, http://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com/2014/08/08/state-senator-presents-teslas-ceo-with-golden-shovel-courting-auto-makers-multi-billion-dollar-battery-factory/.
Arizona promised to put forward a bill “Arizona may allow Tesla sales,” CNN Money, March 23, 2014, http://money.cnn.com/2014/03/23/autos/arizona-tesla-gigafactory/.
When, on September 4, 2014, Musk and Sandoval announced the deal on the steps of the state capitol in Carson City “Tesla Gigafactory Announcement,” Tesla YouTube channel, September 5, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZHeR2-ifbg4.
It was, Sandoval said, a “significant and historic day” that would “change Nevada forever.” “How the Tesla Deal Was Done and What It Means,” by Jon Ralston, Ralston Reports, July 9, 2014, https://www.ralstonreports.com/blog/my-column-how-tesla-deal-was-done-and-what-it-means.
Tesla got 980 acres of land for free, a twenty-year exemption “Inside Elon Musk’s $1.4 Billion Score,” by Peter Elkind, Fortune, November 14, 2014, http://fortune.com/inside-elon-musks-billion-dollar-gigafactory/.
worth about $1.4 billion over two decades Ibid.
9:20 p.m. on April 30, 2015 “Tesla Introduces Tesla Energy,” Tesla YouTube channel, May 2, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NvCIhn7_FXI.
“salute those who improve the species…” “The Darwin Awards – About,” The Darwin Awards Facebook page, accessed December 20, 2016, https://www.facebook.com/pg/TheDarwinAwards/about/.
Tesla would later produce a 14 kWh version that retailed at $5,500 “Tesla’s Powerwall 2 Packs Over Twice the Energy Storage,” TechCrunch, October 28, 2016, https://techcrunch.com/2016/10/28/teslas-powerwall-2-packs-over-twice-the-energy-storage/.
Tesla is planning to build multiple Gigafactories “Tesla Introduces Tesla Energy,” Tesla YouTube channel, May 2, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NvCIhn7_FXI.
clean energy project on the island of Ta’u in American Samoa “Tesla Powers a Whole Island With Solar to Show Off Its Energy Chops,” The Verge, November 22, 2016, http://www.theverge.com/2016/11/22/13712750/tesla-microgrid-tau-samoa.
Chris Dixon of Andreessen Horowitz calls a “full-stack startup” “Full Stack Startups,” Cdixon Blog, March 15, 2014, http://cdixon.org/2014/03/15/full-stack-startups/.
Tesla installed a makeshift battery plant to supply power to a children’s hospital in Puerto Rico “Tesla Turns Power Back On At Children's Hospital In Puerto Rico,” National Public Radio, October 25, 2017, https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/10/25/560045944/tesla-turns-power-back-on-at-childrens-hospital-in-puerto-rico.
Tesla’s “Secret Master Plan” “The Secret Tesla Motors Master Plan (Just Between You and Me),” by Elon Musk, Tesla Motors blog, August 2, 2006, https://www.tesla.com/blog/secret-tesla-motors-master-plan-just-between-you-and-me.
“Master Plan, Part Deux” “Master Plan, Part Deux,” by Elon Musk, Tesla Motors blog, July 20, 2016, https://www.tesla.com/blog/master-plan-part-deux.
Tesla had made its offer to acquire SolarCity “Tesla Offers to Acquire SolarCity,” Wall Street Journal, June 22, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/tesla-offers-to-acquire-solarcity-1466545551.
“accelerate the world’s transition to sustainable energy” “Musk Touting New Master Plan for Tesla Puts Focus on the Future,” Bloomberg, July 13, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-07-13/musk-touting-new-master-plan-for-tesla-puts-focus-on-the-future.
“The world does not lack for automotive companies…” “Tesla’s Done Being an Automaker – It’s Now an Energy Company,” Wired, June 23, 2016, https://www.wired.com/2016/06/tesla-solar-city-elon-musk/.
“a trillion-dollar market cap company” “Elon Musk Says Tesla and SolarCity Could Be $1 Trillion Company,” Fortune, June 22, 2016, http://fortune.com/2016/06/22/teslatrillion-dollar-company/ .
The next phase of Tesla would focus on four areas “Master Plan, Part Deux,” by Elon Musk, Tesla Motors blog, July 20, 2016, https://www.tesla.com/blog/master-plan-part-deux.
“less like a plan, more like a manifesto” “Does Elon Musk Envy Travis Kalanick?,” by Liam Denning, Bloomberg, July 21, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/gadfly/articles/2016-07-21/tesla-master-plan-part-deux-elon-musk-must-envy-travis-kalanick.
“big on vision, short on detail” “Musk’s New ‘Master Plan’ For Tesla Big on Vision, Short on Detail,” Reuters, July 21, 2016, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-tesla-masterplan-research-idUSKCN1011H5.
“the second model will be a sporty four door family car” “The Secret Tesla Motors Master Plan (Just Between You and Me),” by Elon Musk, Tesla Motors blog, August 2, 2006, https://www.tesla.com/blog/secret-tesla-motors-master-plan-just-between-you-and-me.
rough calculations in a white paper “Hyperloop,” by Elon Musk, Tesla Motors blog, August 12, 2013, https://www.tesla.com/blog/hyperloop.
“gargantuan factory of mind-boggling size” “Musk: ‘Truly gargantuan battery factory’,” CNBC, August 22, 2013, http://video.cnbc.com/gallery/?video=3000193143.
Even with a $1.6 billion contribution from Panasonic “Panasonic Putting $1.6 Billion Into $4–5 Billion Tesla Gigafactory,” CleanTechnica, January 8, 2016, https://cleantechnica.com/2016/01/08/panasonic-putting-1-6-billion-into-4-5-billion-tesla-gigafactory/.
Tesla has had to raise billions for its construction through bond sales, share sales, and lines of credit “Tesla Raises Share Offering to $624.5 million,” Reuters, August 14, 2015, http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/08/14/us-tesla-motors-newissue-pricing-idUSKCN0QJ11L20150814; “Tesla Sets $1.4 Billion Stock Sale to Speed Up Model 3 Production,” Forbes, May 18, 2016, http://www.forbes.com/sites/steveschaefer/2016/05/18/tesla-raising-capital-for-model-3-production-with-1-4-billion-stock-sale/#3204ae59f8d5; “Tesla Gets $300 Million Lease Credit Line from Deutshe Bank,” Reuters, September 7, 2016, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-tesla-credit-idUSKCN11D2RZ.
close to 100 degrees Fahrenheit at midday on Tuesday, July 26, 2016 “Tesla’s Entire Future Depends on the Gigafactory,” The Verge, July 28, 2016, http://www.theverge.com/2016/7/28/12299202/tesla-model-3-gigafactory-tour-elon-musk-photos-nevada; “Live Blog: Tesla Unveils the Gigafactory,” Fortune, July 26, 2016, http://fortune.com/2016/07/26/live-blog-tesla-gigafactory/.
wind was whipping up loose dirt at the Gigafactory site “Live Blog: Tesla Unveils the Gigafactory,” Fortune, July 26, 2016, http://fortune.com/2016/07/26/live-blog-tesla-gigafactory/; “Inside Tesla’s Gigantic Gigafactory,” BBC News, July 27, 2016, http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-36893104.
A thousand construction workers were on the site seven days a week now BBC News, July 27, 2016, http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-36893104; “Tesla Gigafactory Expansion Going Seven Days a Week,” Gas2, July 25, 2016, http://gas2.org/2016/07/25/tesla-gigafactory-expansion-going-seven-days-week/.
“This is Tesla’s Gigafactory, your first look inside” “A Rare Look Inside Tesla’s ‘Gigafactory’,” CNBC, July 26, 2016, http://www.cnbc.com/2016/07/26/a-rare-look-inside-teslas-gigafactory.html?_source=twitter.
stretch quarter of a mile long and 5.8 million square feet in floor area BBC News, July 27, 2016, http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-36893104/.
Musk wanted it to produce up to 150 GWh by 2020 “Tesla Could Triple the Planned Battery Output of ‘Gigafactory 1’ to 150 GWh, Says Elon Musk,” Electrek, May 31, 2016, https://electrek.co/2016/05/31/tesla-triple-battery-output-gigafactory-1-150-gwh-elon-musk/.
10,000 jobs could be created within a four-year time span “For Elon Musk’s Tesla Gigafactory, Bigger Is Better,” Fortune, July 27, 2016, http://fortune.com/2016/07/27/elon-musk-gigafactory/.
LeBeau tweeted a photo of a scale model of the factory Phil LeBeau’s Twitter account, 12:17 p.m., July 26, 2016, https://twitter.com/Lebeaucarnews/status/758018385963692032?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw.
In an afternoon press conference “Live Blog: Tesla Unveils the Gigafactory,” Fortune, July 26, 2016, http://fortune.com/2016/07/26/live-blog-tesla-gigafactory/.
brought over by the conquistador Hernán Cortés in the 16th Century “American Mustang,” International Museum of the Horse website, accessed December 20, 2016, http://www.imh.org/exhibits/online/american-mustang.
1971 act “The Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971 (Public Law 92-195),” available at https://www.wildhorseandburro.blm.gov/92-195.htm.
Gigafactory 1 opening with a boisterous party “Tesla Gigafactory Opens With Eyes on Expansion, Buses,” Inverse, July 13, 2016, https://www.inverse.com/article/19036-tesla-opens-gigafactory-with-eyes-on-expansion.
speech and slideshow from a stage Ibid.
Chapter 12: We Didn’t Run Out of Stones, Either
Joshua Brown’s Tesla Model S was traveling eastward at 74 mph “Can Tesla Solves Its Autopilot Problem?,” The Drive, July 7, 2016, http://www.thedrive.com/tech/4313/can-tesla-solve-its-autopilot-problem; “Tesla Autopilot Fatality – Timeline & Facts,” CleanTechnica, July 2, 2016, http://cleantechnica.com/2016/07/02/tesla-autopilot-fatality-timeline-facts/; “Tesla’s Autopilot Remains in the Spotlight,” CNN Tech, July 27, 2016, http://money.cnn.com/2016/07/26/technology/tesla-ntsb-autopilot/.
Brown was a 40-year-old ex-Navy SEAL “Joshua Brown, Who Died in Self-Driving Accident, Tested Limits of His Tesla,” New York Times, July 1, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/02/business/joshua-brown-technology-enthusiast-tested-the-limits-of-his-tesla.html?_r=1.
dashcam footage of his Tesla, in Autopilot mode “Watch This Tesla’s Autopilot Save a Driver’s Life,” The Drive, April 18, 2016, http://www.thedrive.com/news/3052/watch-this-teslas-autopilot-save-a-drivers-life?iid=sr-link1.
Musk had tweeted the video Elon Musk’s Twitter account, 3:34 p.m., April 17, 2016, https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/721829237741621248?lang=en.
“@elonmusk noticed my video!” Joshua Brown’s Twitter account, 5:41 p.m., April 17, 2016, https://twitter.com/NexuInnovations/status/721861233662537728?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw.
he could die and go to heaven “Joshua Brown, Who Died in Self-Driving Accident, Tested Limits of His Tesla,” New York Times, July 1, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/02/business/joshua-brown-technology-enthusiast-tested-the-limits-of-his-tesla.html?_r=1.
“Even with our first version, it’s almost twice as good as a person” “Elon Musk: Tesla’s Autopilot is Twice as Safe as Humans,” The Telegraph, April 25, 2016, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2016/04/25/elon-musk-teslas-autopilot-makes-accidents-50pc-less-likely/.
When Autopilot was activated “Tesla Investigations Could Question Viability of Semi-Autonomous Driving,” MIT Technology Review, July 11, 2016, https://www.technologyreview.com/s/601885/tesla-investigations-could-question-viability-of-semi-autonomous-driving/.
The impact tore the roof off the car “Witnesses to Aftermath of Deadly Tesla Say Autopilot Continued to Drive Car for Hundreds of Yards,” ABC Action News, July 1, 2016, http://www.abcactionnews.com/news/local-news/witnesses-to-aftermath-of-deadly-tesla-autopilot-crash-say-car-drove-hundreds-of-yards-with.
Brown’s Tesla looked like it had been stomped on Ibid.
“the first known fatality in just over 130 million miles…” “A Tragic Loss,” Tesla Motors blog, June 30, 2016, https://www.tesla.com/blog/tragic-loss.
widely considered the first death in a “self-driving car” “Driver Killed in Self-Driving Car Accident for First Time,” PBS Newshour, June 30, 2016, http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/driver-killed-in-self-driving-car-accident-for-first-time/.
wondered if the crash would set back the cause of autonomous driving “What Tesla’s Fatal Crash Means for the Path to Driverless Cars,” Fortune, July 3, 2016, http://fortune.com/2016/07/03/teslas-fatal-crash-implications/.
others contended that the crash proved nothing “The First Self-Driving Car Fatality Proves Nothing,” by John Naughton, The Guardian, July 17, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/jul/17/self-driving-car-crash-proves-nothing-tesla-autopilot.
Reporter Carol Loomis asked why Tesla had not revealed details of the accident earlier “Elon Musk Says Autopilot Death ‘Not Material’ to Tesla Shareholders,” by Carol Loomis, Fortune, July 5, 2016, http://fortune.com/2016/07/05/elon-musk-tesla-autopilot-stock-sale/.
one of the country’s most celebrated financial journalists “Carol Loomis, Editor for Warren Buffett, Leaves Job After 60 Years,” New York Times, July 3, 2014, https://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/04/business/media/carol-loomis-editor-for-warren-buffett-leaves-job-after-60-years.html.
publishing a follow-up story “Tesla Said an Autopilot Crash Would Be ‘Material’ Before Elon Musk Said It Wasn’t,” Fortune, July 6, 2016, http://fortune.com/2016/07/06/tesla-autopilot-crash-material-ceo-elon-musk/.
published a piece that said Fortune was twisting Tesla’s words “Tesla/Elon Musk’s Words Twisted In Attack Over Material Disclosure of Fatal Model S Autopilot Accident,” Electrek, July 6, 2016, https://electrek.co/2016/07/06/fortune-elon-musk-tesla-autopilot-accident-boilerplate-statement/.
Koch Industries and its subsidiaries own major oil operations “Koch Industries Inc. Company Information,” Hoovers, accessed December 21, 2016, http://www.hoovers.com/company-information/cs/company-profile.Koch_Industries_Inc.73b0949397971193.html.
Fortune had earlier published an opinion piece by Koch Industries board member James Mahoney “What Electric-Car Lovers Get Wrong About Fossil Fuels,” Fortune, March 7, 2016, http://fortune.com/author/jim-mahoney/.
“The serious bottom line here…” “The Koch Bros ‘Multi-million Dollar Assault on Electric Vehicles’ Begins on Fortune Magazine Today,” Electrek, March 7, 2016, https://electrek.co/2016/03/07/koch-bros-assault-electric-vehicles-begins/.
Carol Loomis is a close friend and bridge-playing buddy of Warren Buffett “Carol Loomis, Editor for Warren Buffett, Leaves Job After 60 Years,” New York Times, July 3, 2014, https://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/04/business/media/carol-loomis-editor-for-warren-buffett-leaves-job-after-60-years.html.
entangled in a dispute with Musk and SolarCity over solar subsidies in Nevada “Who Owns the Sun?,” Businessweek, January 28, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/features/2016-solar-power-buffett-vs-musk/.
Fortune Insiders network “Welcome to Fortune Insiders on Medium!,” Fortune Insiders, July 26, 2016, https://insiders.fortune.com/welcome-to-fortune-insiders-e355ffb4dd94.
“an exclusive group of contributors…” Ibid.
Merchants of Doubt Naomi Oreskes and Erik Conway, Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2011).
“Sponsored articles...” Elon Musk’s Twitter account, 3:37 p.m., July 6, 2016, https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/750820987676061696.
“non-stop propaganda” “Tesla Gigafactory Opens With Eyes on Expansion, Buses,” Inverse, July 13, 2016, https://www.inverse.com/article/19036-tesla-opens-gigafactory-with-eyes-on-expansion.
Musk replied that it’s hard to ask oil companies to act against their best interests “Tesla and SpaceX Founder Elon Musk: The Full D11 Interview (Video),” AllThingsD, May 30, 2013, http://allthingsd.com/20130530/tesla-ceo-and-spacex-founder-elon-musk-the-full-d11-interview-video/.
sustained character assault on Dr. Michael Mann “Climate Change Debated Overheated After Sceptic Grasped ‘Hockey Stick’,” The Guardian, February 9, 2010, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2010/feb/09/hockey-stick-michael-mann-steve-mcintyre.
Mann’s research would later be backed up by more than a dozen separate studies Ibid.
such as the fossil fuels–funded George C. Marshall Institute “The Hockey Stick Debate: Lessons in Disclosure and Due Diligence,” Marshall Institute, May 5, 2011, http://marshall.org/events/the-hockey-stick-debate-lessons-in-disclosure-and-due-diligence/.
Fred Singer “A Tale of Two Climate Hockey Sticks,” by S. Fred Singer, Independent Institute, August 21, 2013, http://www.independent.org/newsroom/article.asp?id=4693.
accepted more than $1.2 million from the fossil fuels industry “Deeper Ties to Corporate Cash for Doubtful Climate Researcher,” New York Times, February 21, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/22/us/ties-to-corporate-cash-for-climate-change-researcher-Wei-Hock-Soon.html.
received more than $100,000 of campaign donations from Koch Industries “Top Contributors: Senator James M Inhofe,” OpenSecrets.org, accessed December 21, 2016, https://www.opensecrets.org/politicians/contrib.php?cycle=Career&cid=N00005582&type=I; “Career Profile,” https://www.opensecrets.org/politicians/summary.php?cid=N00005582&cycle=Career.
Inhofe has repeatedly described global warming as a “hoax” “Jim Inhofe’s Snowball Has Disproven Climate Change Once and For All,” by Philip Bump, Washington Post, February 26, 2015, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/02/26/jim-inhofes-snowball-has-disproven-climate-change-once-and-for-all/.
New York Attorney General’s fraud investigation into ExxonMobil “Exxon Mobil Fraud Inquiry Said to Focus More on Future Than Past,” New York Times, August 19, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/20/science/exxon-mobil-fraud-inquiry-said-to-focus-more-on-future-than-past.html.
Exxon helped create a fossil fuels industry lobby group called the Global Climate Coalition “Industry Ignored Its Scientists on Climate,” New York Times, April 23, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/24/science/earth/24deny.html?_r=1.
Exxon’s own scientists had repeatedly provided evidence “Exxon Knew About Climate Change Almost 40 Years Ago,” Scientific American, October 26, 2015, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/exxon-knew-about-climate-change-almost-40-years-ago/.
claiming its free speech rights were under attack “Can ExxonMobil Be Found Liable for Misleading the Public on Climate Change?”, Bloomberg Businessweek, September 7, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-09-07/will-exxonmobil-have-to-pay-for-misleading-the-public-on-climate-change.
The Kochs believe that the role of government should not just be limited but close to non-existent “Universities Getting Koch Cash for Libertarian Economics,” Al Jazeera, October 30, 2015, http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/10/30/koch-foundations-invest-in-higher-education-indepth.html.
2013 Drexel University study “Conservative Groups Spend Up to $1bn a Year to Fight Action on Climate Change,” The Guardian, December 20, 2013, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/dec/20/conservative-groups-1bn-against-climate-change.
Koch-backed group was being assembled to spend $10 million a year to attack electric vehicle subsidies “The Kochs Are Plotting a Multimillion-Dollar Assault on Electric Vehicles,” Huffington Post, February 18, 2016, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/koch-electric-vehicles_us_56c4d63ce4b0b40245c8cbf6.
Salt is essential to the human diet “Weird Science: Salt is Essential to Life,” Exploring Our Fluid Earth, accessed December 21, 2016, https://manoa.hawaii.edu/exploringourfluidearth/chemical/chemistry-and-seawater/salty-sea/weird-science-salt-essential-life.
humans have harvested salt in a number of ways “The Social Influence of Salt,” by M.R. Bloch, Scientific American, July 1963, Vol 209, Number 1, 88–98.
Such methods have been traced back at least 3,500 years Ibid, 92.
Chinese discovered a way to drill into mountains Ibid, 91.
Thriving settlements arose around salt sources Ibid, 95.
people got their salt hits by drinking the blood and urine of cattle Ibid, 89.
“A certain political pattern seems to emerge” Ibid, 95.
Ethiopia used bars of salt as currency “Salt Currency,” Encyclopedia of Money, October 2011, accessed December 21, 2016, http://encyclopedia-of-money.blogspot.com/2011/10/salt-currency.html.
German tribes fought over salt sources “The Social Influence of Salt,” by M.R. Bloch, Scientific American, July 1963, Vol 209, Number 1, 95.
aggravating factor leading to the French Revolution Ibid.
Union forces captured Saltville “The Salt Wars,” by Rick Beard, New York Times, December 26, 2013, http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/12/26/the-salt-wars/?_r=0.
dieticians say our problem is too much salt “90% of Americans Eat Too Much Salt,” Time, July 2, 2015, http://time.com/3944545/sodium-heart/.
The first refrigerated ships appeared in the mid- 1870s “History of Refrigeration Timeline – 1748–1904,” ASHRAE website, accessed December 21, 2016, https://www.ashrae.org/resources--publications/history-of-refrigeration-timeline---1748-1904 .
General Electric started marketing the first household refrigerator in 1911 “Chilled: How Refrigeration Changed the World and Might Do So Again by Tom Jackson – Book Review: Enjoyed Best With a Cool Sangria,” The Independent, July 10, 2015, http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/chilled-how-refrigeration-changed-the-world-and-might-do-so-again-by-tom-jackson-book-review-enjoyed-10380606.html.
This revolutionary development facilitated Ibid.
In 2014, 47 percent of petroleum products consumed in the US were used for motor gasoline “Oil: Crude and Petroleum Products Explained,” U.S Energy Information Administration website, accessed December 21, 2016, http://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/index.cfm?page=oil_use.
From June 2014 to January 2015, an oversupply of oil sent prices crashing from $116 a barrel to $47 a barrel “The Oil Crash Explained: John Kemp on the 5 Causes That Led to Oil’s Decline,” Inside Financial & Risk, February 9, 2015, https://blogs.thomsonreuters.com/financial-risk/asset-investment-management/the-oil-crash-explained-5-causes-that-led-to-oils-decline/.
Oil companies big and small laid off staff and canceled hundreds of billions of dollars of projects “Oil Groups Have Shelved $200bn in New Projects As Low Prices Bite,” Financial Times, July 26, 2015, https://www.ft.com/content/d6877d5e-31ee-11e5-91ac-a5e17d9b4cff; “As Oil Industry Reels From Plummeting Prices, Layoffs Stun, Worry Workers,” Houston Chronicle, August 22, 2015, http://www.houstonchronicle.com/business/energy/article/Rising-layoffs-stun-worry-oil-industry-workers-6460142.php.
fastest growth in United States oil production history “U.S. Oil-Production Rise Is Faster Ever,” Wall Street Journal, January 18, 2013, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887323468604578249621718888086.
US transport system used 10 percent less oil in 2014 than it did in 2007 “This Chart Shows How Oil Is Losing Its Total Grip on American Transportation,” Slate, May 21, 2015, http://www.slate.com/blogs/moneybox/2015/05/21/oil_use_in_transportation_this_chart_shows_how_it_s_losing_ground.html.
Shell has said that oil demand could peak in as little as five years “Energy Giant Shell Says Oil Demand Could Peak in Just Five Years,” Bloomberg, November 2, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-11-02/europe-s-biggest-oil-company-thinks-demand-may-peak-in-5-years.
electric cars could displace 2 million barrels of oil a day by 2023 “Here’s How Electric Cars Will Cause the Next Oil Crisis,” Bloomberg, February 25, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/features/2016-ev-oil-crisis/.
electric cars will account for 35 percent of new car sales by 2040 “Electric Vehicles to be 35% of Global New Car Sales by 2040,” Bloomberg New Energy Finance, February 25, 2016, https://about.bnef.com/blog/electric-vehicles-to-be-35-of-global-new-car-sales-by-2040/.
In 1900, less than 10 percent of US households had access to electricity “The 100-Year March of Technology in 1 Graph,” The Atlantic, April 7, 2012, http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/04/the-100-year-march-of-technology-in-1-graph/255573/.
In 1990, there were 5.3 million cellphones subscribers in the US “Cell Phone Subscribers in the U.S., 1985–2010,” Infoplease, accessed December 21, 2016, http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0933563.html.
Twenty-five years later, 92 percent of Americans owned a cellphone “Technology Device Ownership: 2015,” Pew Research Center,” October 29, 2015, http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/10/29/technology-device-ownership-2015/.
“It will approximately double again this year” “Elon Musk: ‘Every Year, We Are Doubling Our Total Cumulative Production,” CleanTechnica, January 15, 2016, https://cleantechnica.com/2016/01/15/elon-musk-every-year-we-are-doubling-our-total-cumulative-production/.
automakers spend billions of dollars a year on advertising “Advertising is Key For Automotive Companies,” Market Realist, February 5, 2015, http://marketrealist.com/2015/02/automotive-companies-spend-heavily-advertising-rd/.
GM alone spent $5.5 billion on advertising Ibid.
Many Nissan Leaf owners say they’ll never go back to gasoline cars “Owner Data: Once You Go Eletric, You Never Go Back,” Torque News, May 23, 2014, http://www.torquenews.com/2250/owner-data-once-you-go-electric-you-never-go-back.
Norway is working on a combination of taxes “Norway Will Not Ban Gas & Diesel Car Sales,” CleanTechnica, June 9, 2016, https://cleantechnica.com/2016/06/09/norway-will-not-ban-gas-diesel-car-sales/.
India’s power minister mused openly about plans “India is Aiming For All Cars to be Electric as Soon as 2030,” Electrek, March 28, 2016, https://electrek.co/2016/03/28/india-electric-cars-2030/.
Germany’s federal council voted for a non-binding resolution “Germany’s Bunderat Votes to Ban the Internal Combustion Engine by 2030,” Ars Technica, October 10, 2016, http://arstechnica.com/cars/2016/10/germanys-bundesrat-votes-to-ban-the-internal-combustion-engine-by-2030/.
Bloomberg’s study forecasted “Electric Vehicles to be 35% of Global New Car Sales by 2040,” Bloomberg New Energy Finance, February 25, 2016, https://about.bnef.com/blog/electric-vehicles-to-be-35-of-global-new-car-sales-by-2040/.
PricewaterhouseCoopers report on oil and gas trends in 2016 “2016 Oil and Gas Trends,” strategy&, accessed December 22, 2016, http://www.strategyand.pwc.com/trends/2016-oil-and-gas-trends.
plans to create a $2 trillion fund “The $2 Trillion Project to Get Saudi Arabia’s Economy Off Oil,” Businessweek, April 21, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2016-04-21/the-2-trillion-project-to-get-saudi-arabia-s-economy-off-oil.
he had worked for Shell for three decades My reporting.
TED talk he gave in 2010 about planning for the end of oil “Planning for the End of Oil,” TED, April 2010, https://www.ted.com/talks/richard_sears_planning_for_the_end_of_oil?language=en#t-373687.
paraphrasing former Saudi Arabian oil minister Sheikh Ahmed Zaki Yamani “The End of the Oil Age,” The Economist, October 23, 2003, http://www.economist.com/node/2155717.
each worth about $50 billion “Forbes 400,” Forbes, accessed December 22, 2016, http://www.forbes.com/forbes-400/list/.
the Kochs own more acres of Canada’s tar sands than any other non-Canadian company “The Biggest Foreign Lease Holder in Canada’s Oil Sands Isn’t Exxon Mobil or Chevron. It’s the Koch Brothers,” Washington Post, March 20, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2014/03/20/the-biggest-land-owner-in-canadas-oil-sands-isnt-exxon-mobil-or-conoco-phillips-its-the-koch-brothers/.
they also preside over a fossil fuels empire “How Koch Became an Oil Speculation Powerhouse,” Think Progress, June 6, 2011, https://thinkprogress.org/how-koch-became-an-oil-speculation-powerhouse-706d135e412f#.rjcpa0nfx.
Toxic 100 Air Polluters Index ranked Koch Industries eighth “Toxic 100 Air Polluters Index,” Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts Amherst, accessed May 16, 2017, https://www.peri.umass.edu/toxic-100-air-polluters-index-2016-report-based-on-2014-data.
Koch Industries has responded “Response to Rolling Stone Story,” KochFacts.com, September 25, 2014, http://www.kochfacts.com/kf/response-to-rolling-stone-story/; “Letter to American Society of Magazine Editors Objecting to New Yorker Magazine Recognition,” KochFacts.com, April 25, 2011, http://www.kochfacts.com/kf/letter-to-american-society-of-magazine-editors-objecting-to-new-yorker-magazine-recognition/.
member of the Union for Radical Political Economics “About URPE,” Union for Radical Political Economics, accessed May 16, 2017, http://urpe.org/?page=about_urpe.
In 2014, Koch Industries was a bigger polluter than Valero, Chevron, and Shell “Reid Right on Claiming Kochs Produce More Pollution Than Oil Giants,” Politifact, July 19, 2016, http://www.politifact.com/nevada/statements/2016/jul/19/harry-reid/reid-right-claiming-kochs-produce-more-pollution-o/.
fined a record $30 million by the EPA for serial environmental crimes “Koch Industries to Pay Record Fine for Oil Spills in Six States,” U.S. EPA press release, January 13, 2000, https://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/016bcfb1deb9fecd85256aca005d74df/981d17e5ab07246f8525686500621079?OpenDocument.
Koch Petroleum agreed to spend $80 million “EPA and DOJ Announce Record Clean Air Agreement With Major Petroleum Refiners,” U.S. EPA press release, July 25, 2000, https://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/8b75cea4165024c685257359003f022e/cd3a52c26b10e67a85256927005e5ee7!OpenDocument.
another Koch subsidiary, Invista, paid a $1.7 million penalty “Invista to Correct EPA Violations,” Wichita Business Journal, April 13, 2009, http://www.bizjournals.com/wichita/stories/2009/04/13/daily13.html.
it brings in $115 billion in annual revenue “25 Most Important Private Companies: Koch Industries,” Fortune, accessed December 22, 20216, http://fortune.com/most-important-private-companies/koch-industries-4/.
David Koch embarked on an unsuccessful campaign as the vice-presidential nominee for the Libertarian Party in the 1980s “Quixotic ’80 Campaign Gave Birth to Kochs’ Powerful Network,” New York Times, May 17, 2014, https://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/18/us/politics/quixotic-80-campaign-gave-birth-to-kochs-powerful-network.html.
spent many millions of dollars “Author Jane Mayer on How the Koch Brothers Have Changed America,” Rolling Stone, February 14, 2016, http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/author-jane-mayer-on-how-the-koch-brothers-have-changed-america-20160214.
“private political machine without precedent” “How the Koch Network Rivals the GOP,” by Kenneth P. Vogel, Politico, December 30, 2015, http://www.politico.com/story/2015/12/koch-brothers-network-gop-david-charles-217124.
pledged to spend $889 million on the 2016 US election “Koch Brothers’ Budget of $889 Million for 2016 Is on Par With Both Parties’ Spending,” New York Times, January 26, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/27/us/politics/kochs-plan-to-spend-900-million-on-2016-campaign.html.
Kochs decided to scale back their spending to $750 million “Behind the Retreat of the Koch Brothers’ Operation,” by Kenneth P. Vogel, Politico, October 27, 2016, http://www.politico.com/story/2016/10/koch-brothers-campaign-struggles-230325#ixzz4OJRX9Kxh.
“40-year project that Charles and David Koch have been funding…” “Author Jane Mayer on How the Koch Brothers Have Changed America,” Rolling Stone, February 14, 2016, http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/author-jane-mayer-on-how-the-koch-brothers-have-changed-america-20160214.
“may be the most important unelected political figures in American history” “The Koch Brothers’ New Brand,” New York Review of Books, March 10, 2016, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/2016/03/10/koch-brothers-new-brand/.
Veronique de Rugy Veronique de Rugy biography, Mercatus Center website, accessed December 22, 2016, https://www.mercatus.org/veronique-de-rugy.
Bruce Fein “Bruce Fein,” SourceWatch, accessed December 22, 2016, http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/Bruce_Fein.
Koch-linked DonorsTrust non-profit group “Exposed: The Dark-Money ATM of the Conversative Movement,” Mother Jones, February 5, 2013, http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2013/02/donors-trust-donor-capital-fund-dark-money-koch-bradley-devos.
“an annual Elon Musk Fleecing Government Award” “Billionaire Elon Musk: Let the Public Be Fleeced,” by Bruce Fein, Washington Times, May 3, 2016, http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2016/may/3/bruce-fein-elon-musk-let-public-be-fleeced/.
Keith Cowing, author of the blog NASA Watch, discovered the site “Why Does Brad Summey Hate on Elon Musk So Much?”, NASA Watch, May 25, 2016, http://nasawatch.com/archives/2016/05/why-does-brad-s.html.
Orange Hat had previously been paid $220,200 by supporter groups “Vendor/Recipient: Orange Hat Group,” OpenSecrets.org, accessed December 22, 2016, https://www.opensecrets.org/expends/vendor.php?year=2014&vendor=Orange+Hat+Group.
Kline and Paulsen scores of 87 percent and 91 percent respectively Americans for Prosperity Scorecard, accessed December 22, 2016, http://afpscorecard.org/.
“Center for Business and Responsible Government” “Why Does Brad Summey Hate on Elon Musk So Much?”, NASA Watch, May 25, 2016, http://nasawatch.com/archives/2016/05/why-does-brad-s.html.
common Koch tactic to fund political front groups to do their bidding “Author Jane Mayer on How the Koch Brothers Have Changed America,” Rolling Stone, February 14, 2016, http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/author-jane-mayer-on-how-the-koch-brothers-have-changed-america-20160214.
the Times carried a piece by Jerry Hirsch “Elon Musk’s Growing Empire is Fueled by $4.9 Billion in Government Subsidies,” by Jerry Hirsch, Los Angeles Times, May 30, 2015, http://www.latimes.com/business/autos/la-fi-hy-musk-subsidies-20150602-story.html.
the Times published Musk’s response “Elon Musk: ‘If I Cared About Subsidies, I Would Have Entered the Oil and Gas Industry,” Los Angeles Times, June 2, 2015, http://www.latimes.com/business/autos/la-fi-hy-musk-subsidies-20150602-story.html.
The International Energy Agency has estimated that the fossil fuels industry collects about $550 billion in global government subsidies annually “Fossil Fules With $550 Billion Subsidies Hurt Renewables,” Bloomberg, November 11, 2014, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-11-12/fossil-fuels-with-550-billion-in-subsidy-hurt-renewables.
$120 billion for the much-smaller renewables sector Ibid.
oil companies tax breaks worth more than $470 billion over the past century “A Brief History of Big Tax Breaks for Oil Companies,” Mother Jones, April 14, 2014, http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2014/04/oil-subsidies-energy-timeline.
International Monetary Fund (IMF) published a report that put the fossil fuel industry’s garbage bill for 2015 alone at $5.3 trillion “How Large Are Global Energy Subsidies?,” International Monetary Fund website, May 18, 2015, http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=42940.0; “Fossil Fuels Subsidised by $10m a Minute, Says IMF,” The Guardian, May 18, 2015, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/may/18/fossil-fuel-companies-getting-10m-a-minute-in-subsidies-says-imf.
“They got the LA Times to buy it on a bullshit story…” “Elon Musk: ‘People Have to Revolt Against the Propoganda of the Fossil Fuel Industry Which Is Unrelenting and Enormous’,” Electrek, May 4, 2016, https://electrek.co/2016/05/04/elon-musk-fossil-fuel-propaganda/.
StopElonMuskFailingAgain.com “Right-Wing Group Led by Trump Propagandist Launches Campaign Against Elon Musk, Tesla and SpaceX,” Electrek, November 22, 2016, https://electrek.co/2016/11/22/elon-musk-right-wing-trump-propaganda-campaign-against-tesla-spacex/.
backed by the political action group Citizens for the Republic, chaired by Laura Ingraham “Elon Musk vs. the Trolls,” Businessweek, November 22, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-11-22/elon-musk-vs-the-trolls.
(Ingraham has decried Democratic Senator Harry Reid’s criticism of the Koch brother…) “Ingraham Goes After Reid: Demonization of Koch Brothers ‘Disgusting, Dangerous’,” Mediaite, April 8, 2014, http://www.mediaite.com/tv/ingraham-goes-after-reid-demonization-of-koch-brothers-disgusting-dangerous/.
Citizens for the Republic also had on its board a man named Craig Shirley “These Are the Lobbyists Behind the Site Attacking Elon Musk and Tesla,” The Drive, November 23, 2016, http://www.thedrive.com/news/6171/these-are-the-lobbyists-behind-the-site-attacking-elon-musk-and-tesla.
In August 2016, Charlie Drevna announced that the advocacy group “New Koch-Funded Group ‘Fueling US Forward’ Aims to Promote the ‘Positives’ of Fossil Fuels,” Desmog, August 14, 2016, https://www.desmogblog.com/2016/08/14/new-koch-back-campaign-rolled-out-red-state-gathering-aims-promote-positives-fossil-fuels.
Koch Industries advertorial “All For All Forms of Energy,” Koch Industries advertisement, The Hill, April 25, 2016, Vol 1, Issue 1.
closely mirrored the language in James Mahoney’s opinion piece “What Electric-Car Lovers Get Wrong About Fossil Fuels,” Fortune, March 7, 2016, http://fortune.com/author/jim-mahoney/.
Nicolas Loris decried the market “distortion” of the government’s involvement “Examining the Department of Energy’s Loan Portfolio,” by Nicolas Loris, The Heritage Foundation website, March 3, 2016, http://www.heritage.org/research/testimony/examining-the-department-of-energys-loan-portfolio.
Loris worked for the Heritage Foundation “Nicolas Loris,” The Heritage Foundation website, accessed December 22, 2016, http://www.heritage.org/about/staff/l/nicolas-loris.
DOE announced that the loans program was profitable “Controversial U.S. Energy Loan Program Has Wiped Out Losses,” Reuters, November 13, 2014, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-doe-loans-idUSKCN0IX0A120141113.
called on Tesla to explain its response to the Autopilot fatality “Tesla Asked to Brief U.S. Senate Panel on Fatal Florida Crash,” Reuters, July 14, 2016, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-tesla-autopilot-idUSKCN0ZU1AO.
found its way to Reuters before it was delivered to the company Ibid.
has accepted more than $50,000 in campaign contributions from Koch Industries in his career “Top Contributors: Senator John Thune,” OpenSecrets.org, accessed May 16, 2017, https://www.opensecrets.org/politicians/contrib.php?cycle=Career&cid=N00004572&type=I.
93 percent on the Americans for Prosperity scorecard Americans for Prosperity Scorecard, accessed May 16, 2017, http://afpscorecard.org/#last#crapo.
accepted campaign contributions of $40,000 from Koch Industries “Mike Crapo: Top 20 Contributors, 2011–2016,” OpenSecrets.org, accessed May 16, 2017, https://www.opensecrets.org/politicians/contrib.php?cycle=2016&type=C&cid=N00006267&newMem=N&recs=20.
National Automobile Dealers Association is another of his major donors “Top Contributors: Senator Mike Crapo,” OpenSecrets.org, accessed May 16, 2017, https://www.opensecrets.org/politicians/contrib.php?cycle=2016&type=C&cid=N00006267&newMem=N&recs=20.
Commission was investigating whether or not Tesla breached securities laws “SEC Investigating Tesla for Possible Securities-Law Breach,” Wall Street Journal, July 11, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/sec-investigating-tesla-for-possible-securities-law-breach-1468268385.
October 2015 letter from four pro-climate members of Congress “Congressmen Call on SEC to Investigate Exxon’s Climate Disclosures,” Inside Climate News, November 2, 2015, https://insideclimatenews.org/news/02112015/congressmen-SEC-invesitigation-exxon-climate-risks-XOM.
Attorney General of New York was investigating Exxon for evidence of fraud “Exxon Mobil Fraud Inquiry Said to Focus More on Future Than Past,” New York Times, August 19, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/20/science/exxon-mobil-fraud-inquiry-said-to-focus-more-on-future-than-past.html.
Exxon, BP, and Shell had all spoken in favor of it “Carbon-Tax Debate Brings Together Unusual Allies,” Wall Street Journal, November 30, 2015, http://www.wsj.com/articles/carbon-tax-debate-brings-together-unusual-allies-1448936246.
“a uniform and predictable cost of carbon” “Bucking Big Oil Companies, U.S. House Condemns Carbon Tax,” Bloomberg, June 9, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-06-09/bucking-big-oil-companies-u-s-house-set-to-condemn-carbon-tax.
Here’s how Bloomberg explained it… Ibid.
Chapter 13: Heaven or Hell?
20-year veteran of BMW “Team,” Future Mobility website, accessed December 22, 2016, http://fmc.auto/team/.
funded by the Chinese luxury auto retailer Harmony group “BMW Executives Said to Join Tencent-Backed Electric-Car Maker,” Bloomberg, April 19, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-04-19/bmw-executives-said-to-join-tencent-backed-electric-car-maker-in731jc5.
Breitfeld joined BMW in 1996 “Dr. Carsten Breitfeld,” Cary Symposium website, accessed December 22, 2016, http://www.car-symposium.de/index.php?id=533.
Byton’s cars will include a digital experience for every passenger “China e-car venture Future Mobility names brand Byton, eyes U.S., Europe,” Reuters, September 7, 2017, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-future-mobility-autos/china-e-car-venture-future-mobility-names-brand-byton-eyes-u-s-europe-idUSKCN1BI1G6.
“Project i” “project i,” BMW Group website, accessed December 22, 2016, https://secure.bmwgroup.com/bmwgroup_prod/e/0_0_www_bmwgroup_com/forschung_entwicklung/mobilitaet_der_zukunft/project_i/born_electric.html.
international press event in Santa Monica “2014 BMW i8 Plug-In Hybrid: High Performance But With a Conscience,” Los Angeles Times, May 2, 2014, http://www.latimes.com/business/autos/la-fi-autos-bmw-i8-review-20140502-story.html.
“dream machine” “2015 BMW i8 Signals a Sports Car Revolution,” New York Daily News, June 6, 2014, http://www.nydailynews.com/autos/latest-reviews/test-drive-2015-bmw-i8-opens-door-future-article-1.1820005.
“equal parts sex appeal and efficiency” “2014 BMW i8 Plug-In Hybrid: High Performance But With a Conscience,” Los Angeles Times, May 2, 2014, http://www.latimes.com/business/autos/la-fi-autos-bmw-i8-review-20140502-story.html.
Both the i8 and i3 have garnered praised since “What It’s Like to Ride in the BMW i3 and i8 (In a Word, Great),” Autoblog, March 5, 2013, http://www.autoblog.com/2013/03/05/what-its-like-to-ride-in-the-bmw-i3-and-i8-in-a-word-great/; “Why BMW’s $145,000 i8 Hybrid Sports Car is a Bargain,” The Globe and Mail, April 28, 2014, http://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-drive/reviews/new-cars/why-bmws-145000-i8-hybrid-sports-car-is-a-bargain/article18299323/; “BMW i3,” Car and Driver, accessed May 16, 2017, http://www.caranddriver.com/bmw/i3.
“They’re doing too many right now with the old technology…” My reporting.
he had hired the core team from BMW’s i8 “BMW Loses Core Development Team of Its i3 and i8 Electric Vehicle Line,” Wall Street Journal, April 20, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/bmw-loses-core-development-team-of-its-i3-and-i8-electric-vehicle-line-1461086049.
sent a letter to his employees to confess that LeEco was running out of money “Chinese Billionaire Cuts Salary to 15 Cents Amid Cash Crunch,” Bloomberg, November 7, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-11-07/troubled-chinese-billionaire-confesses-to-cash-crunch-at-leeco.
signed a deal to buy American TV brand Vizio “LeEco Funding Scare Casts Doubt on Grand Vision,” Wall Street Journal, November 13, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/leeco-funding-scare-casts-doubt-on-grand-vision-1479072601.
the deal ultimately fell through “Vizio’s $2-billion Sale to LeEco Called Off Over ‘Regulatory Headwinds’,” Los Angeles Times, April 10, 2017, http://www.latimes.com/business/technology/la-fi-tn-vizio-leeco-20170410-story.html.
70 percent stake in the ride-sharing company Yidao Yongche “LeEco Funding Scare Casts Doubt on Grand Vision,” Wall Street Journal, November 13, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/leeco-funding-scare-casts-doubt-on-grand-vision-1479072601.
29 percent of smartphone maker Coolpad Ibid.
new-media broadcasting rights to Chinese Super League “LeEco Talks to ‘Give Up’ Soccer Rights,” China Daily, February 17, 2017, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/business/tech/2017-02/17/content_28234821.htm.
Jia had personally invested $300 million in Faraday Future “Nevada Official Voices Concerns About Faraday Future Financial Problems,” Las Vegas Review-Journal, November 10, 2016, http://www.reviewjournal.com/business/nevada-official-voices-concerns-about-faraday-future-financial-problems.
Faraday ceased construction of its factory in Nevada “Work Stops at Faraday Future Factory Site in North Las Vegas,” Las Vegas Sun, November 15, 2016, http://lasvegassun.com/news/2016/nov/15/work-stops-at-faraday-future-factory-site-in-north/.
The financial future of Lucid Motors was also cast into doubt My reporting.
“We blindly sped ahead…” “Chinese Billionaire Cuts Salary to 15 Cents Amid Cash Crunch,” Bloomberg, November 7, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-11-07/troubled-chinese-billionaire-confesses-to-cash-crunch-at-leeco.
LeEco announced $600 million of extra funding “‘Actually, We’re Okay For Now’: LeEco Raises US$600m in Abript U-Turn From Cash Shortage,” South China Morning Post, November 15, 2016, http://www.scmp.com/business/china-business/article/2046223/actually-turns-out-were-fine-leeco-raises-us600m-abrupt-u.
$2.18 billion investment from Sunac “LeEco Gets Fresh $2.18 Billion Investment From Property Developer Sunac,” Reuters, January 13, 2017, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-tech-leshi-idUSKBN14X1WV.
vehicle assembly plant in Zhejiang province “LeEco Gets 10 Billion Yuan Lifeline, Breaks Ground on China Car Plant,” South China Morning Post, December 28, 2016, http://www.scmp.com/business/companies/article/2057641/leeco-breaks-ground-12-billion-yuan-deqing-car-assembly.
$300 million discrepancy “Faraday Future Plagued by Lawsuits, Unpaid Bills Ahead of Electric Car Reveal,” BuzzFeed, December 15, 2016, https://www.buzzfeed.com/priya/turmoil-at-faraday-future?utm_term=.diqQEOJR8#.gtzROxk2L; “Inside Sources Say Faraday Future is a Bigger Catastrophe Than You Can Possibly Imagine,” Jalopnik, December 16, 2016, http://jalopnik.com/inside-sources-say-faraday-future-is-a-bigger-catastrop-1789990283.
Futuris, sued for missed payments Ibid.
suit was dismissed “Faraday Future Hit With $10 Million Lawsuit For Unpaid Bills [UPDATE: Dismissed],” Jalopnik, December 15, 2016, http://jalopnik.com/faraday-future-hit-with-10-million-lawsuit-for-unpaid-1789987911.
Beim Maple Properties… filed a suit “Faraday Future Plagued by Lawsuits, Unpaid Bills Ahead of Electric Car Reveal,” BuzzFeed, December 15, 2016, https://www.buzzfeed.com/priya/turmoil-at-faraday-future?utm_term=.diqQEOJR8#.gtzROxk2L.
$21 million behind on payments Ibid.
There was an exodus of executives “Faraday Future loses three top executives as manufacturing stalls,” Verge, November 10, 2017, https://www.theverge.com/2017/11/10/16633542/faraday-future-stefan-krause-resignation-bmw-trouble.
six high-ranking employees left Faraday “Six More Senior Staffers At Faraday Future Have Jumped Ship,” Jalopnik, October 28, 2016, http://jalopnik.com/six-more-senior-staffers-at-faraday-future-have-jumped-1788189695.
two more executives “Two Top Faraday Future Executives Just Resigned,” The Verge, December 23, 2016, https://www.theverge.com/2016/12/23/14069968/faraday-future-executive-resignation-mattiacci-sommer.
Krause, who had joined from BMW “Faraday Future expats spin off a new electric car startup,” Electrek, December 20, 2017, https://electrek.co/2017/12/20/faraday-future-expats-new-electric-car-startup/.
most notable part of the unveiling was that the car failed to drive “Watch the Faraday Future FF 91’s Embarrassing Self-Parking Fail Onstage,” Jalopnik, January 3, 2017, http://jalopnik.com/watch-the-faraday-future-ff-91-s-embarrassing-self-park-1790736805.
claimed more than sixty-four thousand reservations “Faraday Future Secured 64,000 Reservations But Don’t Think it Has Made Millions Off of Them,” Jalopnik, January 5, 2017, http://jalopnik.com/faraday-future-secured-64-000-reservations-but-dont-thi-1790824948.
“… an easy road may never lead to greatness” Jia Yueting’s Twitter account, 1:14 a.m., January 20, 2017, https://twitter.com/JiaYueting/status/822371589740105729.
Faraday would scale back its ambitions “China-Backed Electric Vehicle Startup Faraday Scales Back U.S. Plans,” Reuters, February 1, 2017, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-autos-faraday-idUSKBN15G5L7.
Shanghai court froze his assets “Court Freezes $182 Million in Assets of Chinese Internet Tycoon,” New York Times, July 4, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/04/business/leeco-frozen-assets-china-debt.html?_r=1.
China put him on a blacklist of debt defaulters “The founder of China’s LeEco has just been added to a nationwide blacklist,” CNBC, December 13, 2017, https://www.cnbc.com/2017/12/13/leeco-founder-jia-yueting-blacklisted-by-china.html.
2013 survey of more than 2,200 executives by strategic consultancy Booz & Company “Corporate Culture Is Critical to Business Success, Yet Mismanaged and Underleveraged, Finds Booz & Company Survey,” strategy& press release, November 19, 2013, http://www.strategyand.pwc.com/global/home/press/displays/corporate-culture-is-critical-to-business-success.
“There are always clashes between the Americans and the Chinese” My reporting.
average age of billionaires in China is 53 years old “Chinese Billionaires Are the World’s Youngest,” Bloomberg, November 21, 2013, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2013-11-21/chinese-billionaires-are-the-world-s-youngest.
“like an old-school Hong Kong company” “Battle of the Electric Car Startups: Will Faraday Future Merge With Atieva?,” The Guardian, April 20, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/apr/20/faraday-futures-owner-rival-electric-car-startup-atieva-jia-yueting.
“The more voices of reason that the President hears, the better” “A Brief Chat With Elon Musk About Climate Change, Rex Tillerson, and Donald Trump,” Gizmodo, January 25, 2017, http://gizmodo.com/a-brief-chat-with-elon-musk-about-climate-change-rex-t-1791620750.
attempting to assess how the move will affect supply chain “10 Questions About Brexit’s Impact on the Auto Industry,” Automotive News, July 2, 2016, http://www.autonews.com/article/20160702/OEM/307049963/10-questions-about-brexits-impact-on-the-auto-industry.
“hubris in adding far too much new technology” “Tesla Blames Hubris for Latest Production Shortfalls,” Financial Times, April 4, 2016, https://www.ft.com/content/001b186e-faa9-11e5-b3f6-11d5706b613b.
“Basically, we were in production hell for the first six months of this year” “Tesla Loss Grows as it Falls Short of Sales Goals,” Associated Press, August 3, 2016, http://bigstory.ap.org/article/8185b060b62248589f3541ef89cb704d/tesla-loss-grows-it-falls-short-sales-goals.
It SolarCity acquisition “Tesla and SolarCity Agree to $2.6 Billion Deal,” Wall Street Journal, Augst 1, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/tesla-and-solarcity-agree-to-2-6-billion-merger-deal-1470050724.
Wall Street Journal had published a story that said Tesla had suffered from growing pains “Electric-Car Pioneer Elon Musk Charges Head-On at Detroit,” Wall Street Journal, January 11, 2015, http://www.wsj.com/articles/electric-car-pioneer-elon-musk-charges-head-on-at-detroit-1421033527.
“I don’t like to fire people…” “Electric-Car Pioneer Elon Musk Charges Head-On at Detroit,” Wall Street Journal, January 11, 2015, http://www.wsj.com/articles/electric-car-pioneer-elon-musk-charges-head-on-at-detroit-1421033527.
space Internet subdivision “Elon Musk Wants to Cover the World With Internet From Space,” The Guardian, November 17, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/nov/17/elon-musk-satellites-internet-spacex.
2015 interview on Danish television “Elon Musk Interviewed on Danish TV, 27th September 2015,” Dark Knight YouTube channel, September 30, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rdCkDSXQC1Q; “Danish TV Interviews Tesla CEO Elon Musk,” CleanTechnica, September 29, 2015, https://cleantechnica.com/2015/09/29/50-more-range-for-tesla-model-s-in-1-2-years/.
Chapter 14: Catching a Ride to the Renaissance
The average driving speed in Beijing is 7.5 miles an hour “A Big Reason Beijing Is Polluted: The Average Car Goes 7.5 Miles Per Hour,” Quartz, January 3, 2014, http://qz.com/163178/a-big-reason-beijing-is-polluted-the-average-car-goes-7-5-miles-per-hour/.
Stalin had Kondratiev shot “1938: Nikolai Kondratiev, Purged Economist,” ExecutedToday.com, September 17, 2008, http://www.executedtoday.com/2008/09/17/1938-nikolai-kondratiev-purged-economist/.
The Beijing government restricted personal vehicle use “Beijing to Impose ‘Odd-Even’ License Plate Restrictions for Remainder of Winter: Report,” The Beijinger, January 9, 2016, https://www.thebeijinger.com/blog/2016/01/09/beijing-impose-odd-even-license-plate-restrictions-remainder-winter-report.
6 million cars in Beijing “China to Scrap Millions of Cars in Anti-Pollution Push,” Reuters, May 26, 2014, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-pollution-idUSKBN0E60AN20140526.
more than two million people waiting to have their names drawn “Beijing License Plate Lottery to Get Harder,” Global Times, March 9, 2013, http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/808412.shtml.
150,000 new cars were licensed in Beijing each year “Beijingers Flock to Apply for New Energy Car License Plates,” ECNS, February 26, 2016, http://www.ecns.cn/cns-wire/2016/02-26/200663.shtml.
250 auto companies worldwide in the early 1900s “Automobiles,” History.com, accessed December 23, 2016, http://www.history.com/topics/automobiles.
now only about 14 “These 14 Giant Corporations Dominate the Global Auto Industry,” Business Insider, February 19, 2015, http://www.businessinsider.com/car-companies-of-the-world-2015-2.
Baidu, China’s largest online search company, working on its own vehicle since 2013 “Baidu’s Self-Driving Car Has Hit the Road,” Wired, December 9, 2015, https://www.wired.com/2015/12/baidus-self-driving-car-has-hit-the-road/.
car-sharing could reduce the number of cars on the road by 80 percent “Full Speed Ahead: How the Driverless Car Could Transform Cities,” McKinsey, August 2015, accessed December 23, 2016, http://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/sustainability-and-resource-productivity/our-insights/full-speed-ahead-how-the-driverless-car-could-transform-cities.
70,000 taxis in the city for a population of 20 million people “Doubts Cast on Beijing’s Cab Shortage Resolution,” Wall Street Journal, May 27, 2013, http://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2013/05/27/drivers-cast-doubt-on-beijings-plan-to-raise-cab-fares/.
Uisee is an acronym “China’s Companies Poised to Take Leap in Developing a Driverless Car,” New York Times, April 3, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/04/technology/chinas-companies-poised-to-take-leap-in-developing-a-driverless-car.html.
More than seven hundred people are killed on its roads a day “China Traffic Deaths: More Than 200,000 Annual Fatalities in Road Accidents, World Health Organization Says,” International Business Times, May 6, 2015, http://www.ibtimes.com/china-traffic-deaths-more-200000-annual-fatilities-road-accidents-world-health-1910537.
self-driving car pilot program in the central city “Chinese City Wuhu Embraces Driverless Vehicles,” BBC News, May 16, 2016, http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-36301911.
“Autonomous vehicles are mostly defined by the software that operates them” “Tesla CTO JB Straubel on Autonomous Vehicle and Battery Tech,” EVANNEX YouTube channel, May 26, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lgcozueYXMU.
Tesla’s Autopilot system was classified as Level 2 autonomy “Tesla and Google Are Both Driving Toward Autonomous Vehicles. Which is Taking the Better Route?,” Los Angeles Times, July 3, 2016, http://www.latimes.com/business/technology/la-fi-hy-tesla-google-20160701-snap-story.html.
framework for categorization that was based on five levels “Updated: Autonomous Driving Levels 0 to 5: Understanding the Differences,” TechRepublic, January 20, 2016, http://www.techrepublic.com/article/autonomous-driving-levels-0-to-5-understanding-the-differences/.
Ford Smart Mobility “Meet the New Ford, a Silicon Valley Software Company,” The Verge, April 7, 2016, http://www.theverge.com/2016/4/7/11333288/ford-ceo-mark-fields-interview-electric-self-driving-car-software.
it’s not moving from an old business to a new business,” Ford CEO Mark Fields said Ibid.
In August 2016, Ford announced plans to bring a Level 4 self-driving car “Ford to Offer Fully Driverless Car in 2021,” The Detroit News, August 17, 2016, http://www.detroitnews.com/story/business/autos/ford/2016/08/16/ford-silicon-valley-expansion/88820238/.
Fiat Chrysler has partnered with Google “Google, Fiat Chrysler Begin Work on Self-Driving Minivans,” Wall Street Journal, May 25, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/google-fiat-chrysler-begin-work-on-self-driving-minivans-1464200180.
plans to bring Chevy Bolt robotaxis to the road “GM, Lyft to Test Self-Driving Electric Taxis,” Wall Street Journal, May 5, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/gm-lyft-to-test-self-driving-electric-taxis-1462460094.
compared unfavorably to Tesla by the auto journalist Alex Roy “The War for Autonomous Driving: 2017 Mercedes-Benz E-Class VS. 2017 Tesla Model S,” by Alex Roy, The Drive, July 27, 2016, http://www.thedrive.com/tech/4591/the-war-for-autonomous-driving-2017-mercedes-benz-e-class-vs-2017-tesla-model-s.
It was forced to withdraw the ads “Mercedes Yanks Ad Touting Self-Driving Car,” Fortune, July 29, 2016, http://fortune.com/2016/07/29/mercedes-withdraws-us-ad-touting-self-driving-car/.
Volkswagen has made self-driving cars an important part of its 10-year plan “Volkswagen to Boost Electric Vehicles, Pursue Self-Driving Cars,” Wall Street Journal, June 15, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/volkswagen-to-boost-electric-vehicles-pursue-self-driving-cars-1466015734.
Luminar “This 22-Year-Old CEO Wants to Help Make Self-Driving Cars Affordable,” Fast Company, April 13, 2017, https://www.fastcompany.com/40406052/this-sensor-technology-ceo-wants-to-be-in-self-driving-cars-by-his-26th-birthday.
Zoox “Zoox Raises $200 Million at $1 Billion Valuation For Its Self-Driving Cars,” TechCrunch, June 30, 2016, https://techcrunch.com/2016/06/30/zoox-raises-200-million-at-1-billion-valuation-for-its-self-driving-cars/.
self-driving bus made by Mercedes navigated a 12.5-mile journey “Mercedes-Benz’s Semi-Autonomous Bus Just Passed Its First Major Test,” The Verge, July 19, 2016, http://www.theverge.com/2016/7/19/12222898/mercedes-autonomous-bus-long-range-test.
Self-driving golf carts “Ditch the Bus: Self-Driving Electric Golf Carts Are Ferrying Students on University Campuses,” Quartz, May 1, 2016, http://qz.com/673682/ditch-the-bus-self-driving-electric-golf-carts-are-ferrying-students-on-university-campuses/.
nuTonomy started testing a free self-driving taxi service “Singapore’s Self-Driving Cars Can Now be Hailed With a Smartphone,” The Verge, September 22, 2016, http://www.theverge.com/2016/9/22/13019688/singapore-self-driving-car-nutonomy-grab-ride-hail-test.
autonomous vehicles won’t be on the roads for as many as thirty years “Google Self-Driving Car Will Be Ready Soon for Some, in Decades for Others,” IEEE Spectrum, March 18, 2016, http://spectrum.ieee.org/cars-that-think/transportation/self-driving/google-selfdriving-car-will-be-ready-soon-for-some-in-decades-for-others.
Tesla’s cars will be ready for “complete autonomy” by 2018 “Elon Musk Did Everything But Confirm That Tesla Model 3 Will Be Fully Autonomous,” Electrek, June 2, 2016, https://electrek.co/2016/06/02/tesla-model-3-fully-autonomous-elon-musk/.
equipped with hardware that would allow full self-driving “All Tesla Cars Being Produced Now Have Full Self-Driving Hardware,” Tesla blog, October 19, 2016, https://www.tesla.com/blog/all-tesla-cars-being-produced-now-have-full-self-driving-hardware.
Morgan Stanley analyst has predicted that complete autonomy will be ready by 2022 “Morgan Stanley’s ‘Utopian Society’ Will Be Built By Tesla Motors Inc. Is It Time to Call a Top?,” Aol.com, February 25, 2014, http://www.aol.com/article/2014/02/25/morgan-stanleys-utopian-society-will-be-built-by-t/20837892/?gen=1.
universal and standardized mapping data that can be shared across vehicle fleets and updated in real-time will be necessary “The Autonomous Car’s Reality Check,” The Economist, April 16, 2016, http://www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21696925-building-highly-detailed-maps-robotic-vehicles-autonomous-cars-reality.
Intel plans to start some 5G trials “Intel Plans 5G Trials in 2018, Commercial Deployment in 2020,” PC Mag, August 17, 2016, http://www.pcmag.com/news/347093/intel-plans-5g-trials-in-2018-commercial-deployment-in-2020.
Consumer Reports wrote that Tesla had pushed autonomy too far, too soon “Tesla’s Autopilot: Too Much Autonomy Too Soon,” Consumer Reports, July 14, 2016, http://www.consumerreports.org/tesla/tesla-autopilot-too-much-autonomy-too-soon/.
“handoff problem” “Our Driverless Future,” by Sue Halpern, The New York Review of Books, November 24, 2016, https://www.nybooks.com/articles/2016/11/24/driverless-intelligent-cars-road-ahead/.
A small study by Virginia Tech Ibid.
formation of the Self-Driving Coalition for Safer Streets “Google, Ford, and Uber Just Created a Giant Lobbying Group for Self-Driving Cars,” The Verge, April 26, 2016, http://www.theverge.com/2016/4/26/11510076/self-driving-coalition-ford-google-uber-lyft-volvo-nhtsa.
policy statement that included a series of safety- and civic-minded recommendations “NACTO Policy Statement on Automated Vehicles,” National Association of City Transportation Officials, June 22, 2016, http://nacto.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/NACTO-Policy-Automated-Vehicles-201606.pdf.
Obama administration issued guidelines that covered how driverless cars should behave “Self-Driving Cars Gain Powerful Ally: The Government,” New York Times, September 19, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/20/technology/self-driving-cars-guidelines.html.
testing autonomous vehicles at the University of Michigan’s “Mcity” “Mcity: America’s True Nexus of Self-Driving Research,” Road Show, January 19, 2016, https://www.cnet.com/roadshow/news/mcity-americas-true-nexus-of-self-driving-research/.
Honda has been testing self-driving vehicles at a former naval munitions site “Honda Shows Off Self-Driving Cars at New Calif Testing Facility,” June 2, 2016, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-honda-self-driving-idUSKCN0YO09S.
Shanghai’s Auto City “Autonomous Connected Cars On Their Way,” Shanghai Daily, June 8, 2016, http://www.shanghaidaily.com/business/biz-special/Autonomous-connected-cars-on-their-way/shdaily.shtml.
convoy of a dozen trucks more or less drove themselves across Europe “Self-Drive Trucks ‘Future of Europe’s Busy Highways,’” Phys.org, April 6, 2016, https://phys.org/news/2016-04-self-drive-trucks-future-europe-busy.html.
Platooning results in an average fuel saving of 10 percent per truck “Truck Platooning; Driving the Future of Transportation,” TNO white paper, March 3, 2015, https://www.tno.nl/en/about-tno/news/2015/3/truck-platooning-driving-the-future-of-transportation-tno-whitepaper/.
high-profile startup called Convoy “Convoy Debuts, Aiming to Be the Uber of Trucks,” Bloomberg, October 26, 2015, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-10-27/convoy-debuts-aiming-to-be-the-uber-of-trucks.
Flexport, backed by Google Ventures “Flexport Wants to Be the Uber of the Oceans,” Bloomberg, May 11, 2015, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-05-11/flexport-wants-to-be-uber-of-the-oceans.
Otto, which said in August 2016 that it was moving “with urgency” “Otto Moving With ‘Urgency’ to Introduce Autonomous Truck Tech,” Trucks.com, August 16, 2016, https://www.trucks.com/2016/08/16/otto-autonomous-truck-tech/.
Uber announced that it had acquired Otto “Uber’s First Self-Driving Fleet Arrives in Pittsburgh This Month,” Businessweek, August 18, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2016-08-18/uber-s-first-self-driving-fleet-arrives-in-pittsburgh-this-month-is06r7on.
self-driving truck controlled by Otto’s technology and sponsored by Budweiser delivered a load of beer “Self-Driving Truck’s First Mission: a 120-Mile Beer Run,” New York Times, October 25, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/26/technology/self-driving-trucks-first-mission-a-beer-run.html.
Waymo filed a lawsuit against Uber “Uber Slams Waymo Suit as ‘Baseless’,” USA Today, February 24, 2017, https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/talkingtech/2017/02/24/uber-slams-waymo-suit-baseless/98361618/.
partnered with Volvo for a self-driving car program based in Pittsburgh “Uber’s First Self-Driving Fleet Arrives in Pittsburgh This Month,” Businessweek, August 18, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2016-08-18/uber-s-first-self-driving-fleet-arrives-in-pittsburgh-this-month-is06r7on.
3.5 million professional truck drivers in the US “Self-Driving Trucks Are Going to Hit Us Like a Human-Driven Truck,” by Scott Santens, Basic Income, May 14, 2015, https://medium.com/basic-income/self-driving-trucks-are-going-to-hit-us-like-a-human-driven-truck-b8507d9c5961#.reaoy9sx7.
5.2 million people in the trucking industry who don’t drive trucks Ibid.
autonomous era could have a measurable impact on capitalism “Self-Driving Cars Will Improve Our Cities. If They Don’t Ruin Them,” by Robin Chase, BackChannel, August 10, 2016, https://backchannel.com/self-driving-cars-will-improve-our-cities-if-they-dont-ruin-them-2dc920345618#.xqjo92lx7.
called for a universal basic income Ibid.
electric robotaxis could reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 90 percent “Autonomous Taxis Would Deliver Significant Environmental and Economic Benefits,” Berkeley Lab News Center, July 6, 2015, http://newscenter.lbl.gov/2015/07/06/autonomous-taxis-would-deliver-significant-environmental-and-economic-benefits/.
one self-driving car could replace nine regular vehicles “Operations for the Shared Autonomous Vehicle Fleet for the Austin, Texas Market,” Transportation Research Record, No. 2536: 98-106, 2015, http://www.caee.utexas.edu/prof/kockelman/public_html/TRB15SAVsinAustin.pdf.
cars looking for parking in one Los Angeles business area generated 730 tons of carbon dioxide a year “Cruising for Parking,” by Donald Shoup, Access, Number 30, Spring 2007, http://shoup.bol.ucla.edu/CruisingForParkingAccess.pdf.
shared autonomous cars would cost about 15 cents per mile to operate “How the U.S. Transportation System Can Save $1 Trillion, 2 Billion Barrels of Oil, and 1 Gigaton of Carbon Emissions Annually,” RMI Outlet, March 12, 2015, http://blog.rmi.org/blog_2015_03_12_how_the_us_transportation_system_can_save_big.
Robin Chase calls “zombie cars” “Self-Driving Cars Will Improve Our Cities. If They Don’t Ruin Them,” by Robin Chase, BackChannel, August 10, 2016, https://backchannel.com/self-driving-cars-will-improve-our-cities-if-they-dont-ruin-them-2dc920345618#.xqjo92lx7.
18-minute YouTube video produced by the author and philosophy guru Alain de Botton’s School of Life “History of Ideas – The Renaissance,” The School of Life YouTube channel, November 6, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fI1OeMmwYjU.
ranks 10th in the world for number of billionaires “New York Is the City With the Most Billionaires, Not Beijing,” Forbes, March 1, 2016, http://www.forbes.com/sites/katiasavchuk/2016/03/01/new-york-most-billionaires/#2730b33e2565.